Sunday, March 22, 2015

153.) Military Theodolites & Gyros - Nivellers - Artillery & Topography Surveyors _ Wild, Kern, Carl-Zeiss Jena, MOM

Military Theodolites & Gyros - Nivellers - Artillery & Topography Surveyors: Wild, Kern, Askania, Carl-Zeiss Jena, MOM Teodolitok (Wikipedia)

Filled up to 118%- 18+ 29.09.2017.+ ++++++++++++++++++

above: Juci'bacsi scanned collection: HiRes! Swiss Made: Switzerland Wild-Heerbrugg T-2 Theodolite Women-Soldiers 'Army' 1978/1 US Army's Women surveyor. also FREE pic!

aboveMedRes! American Geodetic Surveyor Woman "Theodora"  in Alaska with Digital Theodolite.   photo: Patrick J. Endres

above: Left: Big-MedRes!  Right: MedRes!  
Old mapping surveyors. below Left: HiRes! Right: Old Shatterhand as surveyor with Apache indians.

above: MedRes! How operating the theodolite? 'Lily Bell' is questions; "Hell on Wheels" is an American Western television series

Hell on Wheels is an American Western television series about the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad across the United States. The series, which featured Anson Mount, Colm Meaney, Common, and Dominique McElligott, chronicled the Union Pacific Railroad and its laborers, mercenaries, prostitutes, surveyors, and others who lived, worked, and died in the mobile encampment, called "Hell on Wheels", that followed the railhead west across the Great Plains. In particular, the story focused on Cullen Bohannon (Mount), a former Confederate soldier who, while working as foreman and chief engineer on the railroad, initially attempted to track down the Union soldiers who murdered his wife and young son during the American Civil War. The series, which broadcast in the United States and Canada on the cable channel AMC, aired from November 6, 2011 to July 23, 2016.
The series was created and produced by Joe and Tony Gayton, and developed by Endemol USA, under the stewardship of senior vice-president of scripted programming Jeremy Gold, and it is produced by Entertainment One and Nomadic Pictures. In 2012, AMC announced creators Joe and Tony Gayton were no longer involved in the day-to-day production of the series. On December 12, 2012, AMC announced that writer John Wirth would take over as showrunner for the third season.
Season one (2011–12) began in 1865, shortly after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, season two (2012) covered 1866, seasons three (2013) and four (2014) opened in 1867, season five (2015–16) carries the series into 1869. On November 7, 2014, Hell on Wheels was renewed for a fifth and final season comprising 14 episodes, split between 2015 and 2016. ...
Dominique McElligott (born 5 March 1986) is an Irish actress, who appears primarily in independent films. She starred in Moon (2009) and the RTÉ television series Rawbefore leaving to film Leap Year (2010). From 2011 to 2012, she played a lead role in the AMC series Hell on Wheels. In 2015, she starred in ABC's The Astronaut Wives Club. In 2016, McElligott played Hannah Conway, wife of the Republican presidential nominee, in the fourth and fifth season of the Netflix show House of Cards.  ...
above: Theodolite surveying instrument used by Lily Bell in movie Episode-9 "Hell on wheels"
NEW+! Hungarian Masterpiece Treasure of History of Industrial
Magyar Ipartörténeti Remekmű Kincs - 25. oct. 2016.
above: NEW! NoHigher! Vintage theodolite

 NEW! NoHigherabove: Gurley theodolite tattoo   below: Mail-Stamp - Postabélyeg Berlin 1981.

NEW+++HiRes! (all six pics!Heureca! Hungarian Collector Mr. Balázs Miklós' Hungarian made, Süss Nándor 'Precisio Mechanic Institut' -Budapest- Csörsz u., (precedessor of MOM) authentic original vintage Theodolite - Bussol on wooden tripod, from 1905. cc. min. For Sale! value: 2,5m.,-HUF - 8111,-€ -> Because only one piece in Hungary! & World?  Pics Courtesy FREE!  photos: Mr. Michael Balas - Balázs Miklós  source: Sextant E-mail.  In My Congratulation For Collector!  Details: six pics!
below: MedRes! Miklos' daughter "Theodora" with His Suess Theodolite
U.S. engineer troops' surveyors

above four: Military Tpography Surveyors in Left: WW-Two  Right: British WW-One

above: NEW! Australian  military Surveyors  Right: MedRes!   source: Australian War Memorial
above: NEW! MedRes! Antique Surveying Tools. When I started doing archaeology field work, instruments such as this were still being used for mapping work. There was n-total station-or GPS units.
NEW! above: HiRes! Cyrillic Russian vintage placard    below: NoHigher! Theodolite II.
NEW! NoHigher! above: Grubentheodolit nach Breithaupt   below: Magnettheodiolit und Multiplikationstheodolit
above: NEW! NoHigher! English improved Stanley's theodolite

below: Left: MedRes! Surveyor's Wye Level & Tripod by Haitman & Saxe 650usd -  Right: LowRes! Surveyor-Scope

Antique Surveying Equipment, LLC and Optical Tooling Equipment

above: NEW+! NoHigher! Other wooden optic-box: The vintage photo-apparat from late 1800s by photoartis: Danish Egon Hye
above: NEW! NoHigher! Knox & Shaing compassing theodolite

above: NEW! NoHigher! Decoration & Gift piece vintage Theodolites wit golden cover
above: NEW! NoHigher! 'Wittnauer'-Double 1969. Retrograde vintage automatic watch
Wittnauer was a watch and timepiece company, founded in 1885 by Swiss immigrant Albert Wittnauer, that is now a brand of the Bulova company.  ...
above: MedRes! WW-Two German Observer Point in Normandy
above: NoHigher! WW-Two Germany: Dia-Slide projector - Kleibildwerfer NS 250 - Diavetítő
above: NEW! NoHigher! Hungarian development Arty. Thedolite by Prof. Maj. Bárány Nándor made by Hu. 'Gamma' works in Budapest in early 1940's source: Haditechnika Review 2002/4
Hu. text: A „Gamma” Műszaki Részvénytársaság 1920. május 18-án alakult meg a budapesti Koszorú utcai telephelyen. Alapítói Dréger Károly elektro-, László Arthur gépészmérnök és Braun Zsigmond rokkant százados, kereskedő. Az új részvénytársaság célja: szabadalmak értékesítése, mechanikai és elektrotechnikai tömegcikkek gyártása és árusítása. 1921. május 6-án „a szerencsétlen gazdasági viszonyokra” való tekintettel az Igazgatóság és a felügyelőbizottság lemondott, helyettük újat választottak. A tönkrement üzemet Juhász Zoltán és Juhász István vette át, és újraindította.  ...
above: NEW! NoHigher! Canadian Royal Arty surveyors with theodolite during "D"-day

above: US Army surveyors

above: HiRes! similar angle measure equipment for orienting on sea: The Sextant (Stadimeter) - Szeksztáns; from Kriegsmarine - 'C Plath' Hamburg

En. text: A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical objectand the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation. The estimation of this angle, the altitude, is known as sighting or shooting the object, or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart—for example, sighting the Sun at noon or Polaris at night (in the Northern Hemisphere) to estimate latitude. Sighting the height of a landmark can give a measure of distance off and, held horizontally, a sextant can measure angles between objects for a position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (such as a star or planet) in order to determine Greenwich Mean Time and hence longitude. The principle of the instrument was first implemented around 1730 by John Hadley (1682–1744) and Thomas Godfrey (1704–1749), but it was also found later in the unpublished writings of Isaac Newton (1643–1727). In 1922, it was modified for aeronautical navigation by Portuguese navigator and Naval Officer Gago Coutinho.  ...
Hu. text: A navigációhoz használt kéttükrös szögmérő, amellyel égitestek helyzetét lehet mérni egymáshoz vagy a horizonthoz viszonyítva. Főként a delelő Nap horizont feletti magasságának mérésére, a földrajzi szélesség meghatározásához használatos.
A kéttükrös mérést hajózási műszerben John Hadley alkalmazta először 1731-ben az oktánsában. A mai szextánsok ennek tökéletesített változatai.
A mérés pontosságát az teszi lehetővé, hogy a tükrözött és a látott képet (pl. a horizontot és a Napot) egy mezőben látjuk. A nap fénye elé szűrőket helyeztek.
Ha a horizont nem látható, az vízszintesre állított műhorizonttal pótolható, ilyen már Hadley műszerében is volt. I<

above: NEW! NoHigher! Surveying is a huge part of my family heritage.
above: NEW! MedRes! Artisty aquarell painting: Surveyor - Geodéta - (Földmérő/Bemérő)
NEW! Soviet TB-1 military Theodolite above: MedRes!    below: NoHigher! price: 63,-€
ТЕОДОЛИТ ТБ-1, 1961Г, В ЯЩИКЕ, б/У, НО НЕ ЗАДРОЧЕННЫЙ. 5000Р Rubel, 20.000,-HUF
above: NEW! MedResТБ-3 Soviet made TB-3 na zapchasti  source:
 above: Deutschland - GDR-German Democratic Republic _ DDR Deutsche Demokratik Republik (East German) NDK-Német Demokratikus Köztársaság (-1990) Jena: Carl-Zeiss Werke (WEB).
above: Carl-Zeiss Jena  theodolite_1924. (Zeisz Károly művek: Jéna)
En. text: Carl Zeiss (German pronunciation: [ˌkaʁl ˈtsaɪs]), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe (joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich, and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in Jena.
Carl Zeiss AG is the premier company of the Zeiss Gruppe, one of the two large divisions of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena. Also controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung are the glass manufacturers Schott AG and Jenaer Glas, located in Mainz and Jena respectively. Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world.  ...

En. text: Die Carl Zeiss AG ist ein Unternehmen der feinmechanisch-optischen Industrie. Sitz der Konzernleitung ist heute Oberkochen. Weitere Standorte befinden sich in Jena, Aalen, Dresden, Berlin, Göttingen, München, Bochingen und Wetzlar sowie in den USA, Ungarn, der Schweiz, Mexiko, Weißrussland, Großbritannien, Frankreich, Israel, Indien und China.  ...
above: HiRes! Karl-Zeiss Jena T2E vintage Theodolite: 430$     below three: HiRes!

above: Carl-Zeiss Jena   Left: MedRes! Theo 020 122$ Right: Theo-010II
above: NEW! MedRes! Zeiss - Jena Theo-120

above: Jena  Left: HiRes! The CZJ firma - A Jénai Karl-Czeiss Gyár

above: NEW! HiRes! Carl Zeiss Jena 'Redta'-002 For Sale: - Predám: EOT 2000 (s kompletným príslušenstvom) = 3300euro 650euro, zberateľské kusy, top stav. Kontakt: 907949854 Michalovce, Slovensko

above: NEW! NoHigher! Hängetheodolit - Függőteodolit: for Tube and Metro building  source: Wikipedia
below: NEW! NoHigher! Product No 2: The universal Swiss pattern tribrach (1921)
One for the nerds really but I can’t do my job without it and it’s the winner of the war of the tribrachs in the ‘70s. All survey instruments have to fit this. Even scanners. Hienrich Wild knew the value of both compactness and durability in instrument design, much has changed since 1921 but levelling and transferring precise measurement devices in the field whilst maintaining a common height of collimation has not. He fixed that.
above: NEW! HiRes! Swiss 'Wild'-Heerbrugg nivellau - niveller - szintező
aboveNEWHiRes! Swiss 'Kern' GK1 niveller - szintező  cross section drawing - metszetrajz 
above: NEW! NoHigher! Swiss 'Kern' -Arau- automatische niveller cutaway graphic artwork
De. text: Die Kern & Co AG war ein schweizerischer, international tätiger Hersteller von Messinstrumenten für die Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie. Nach 134 Jahren Bestand und längerer Kooperation mit Wild Heerbrugg ging er 1988/92 im Wild-Leitz-Konzern auf. ...
The Wild (Heerbrugg) company was founded in 1921 in Switzerland. The company manufactured different optical instruments, such as surveying instruments, microscopes and instruments for photogrammetry among others. The company changed its name several times, first being known as "Heinrich Wild, Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Optik", then "Verkaufs-Aktiengesellschaft Heinrich Wild's Geodätische Instrumente", later "Wild Heerbrugg AG", later "Wild Leitz". The company was linked with Leica in 1989, then it became part of Leica Holding B.V. Its subsidiary Leica Geosystems AG became part of the Swedish Hexagon AB Group of companies in 2005. source:

Wild Theodolites:

The Wild production line provides a theodolite for all possible survey requirements and also offers a large variety of accessories, attachments and independent auxiliary equipment designed as additional means for the best possible use to be obtained from each instrument. Wild theodolites are distinguished by their solid, robust and stable construction, the ease with which they are handled and the speed with which sighting and circle reading can be made without the observer having to change his position. All telescopes have internal focusing and coated lenses, which provide bright, sharp images and all can be transmitted so that observations can be made on both faces. The magnifying power of each type of theodolite has been matched to the instrument's intended use. All theodolites have circles with graduations of either 360° or 400g, the customer specifying which model he requires when placing his order. The self reducing tacheometers (the RDS and RDH) have special devices for optical distance measurement but it is also possible to use the well- defined stadia lines on other Wild theodolites for tacheometric distance measurement. A wide range of accessories and instrumental attachments provides additional possibilities and accuracies for all survey tasks, when used in conjunction with the appropriate Wild theodolite.


All Wild theodolites are fully protected against the weather, and against damage when being transported, by means of strong metal carrying bases and hoods. For the T0 the base of the container is actually the base of the instrument itself.
above: NEW! NoHigher! Wild T-1 1933.  source:

above: NEWUSA Hasbro's G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero 3 3/4" action figures with niveller

above: NEW! HiRes! Historischer Theodolit  source: Wikipedia
above: NEW! HiRes! General arragement of Theodolite swiss 'Wild' TM-5

above: Switzerland Wild-Heerbrugg  Wild T-0 1956
Geodesy instruments (Wild, Askania, Zeiss ...): NL:
above: MedRes! Wild-Heerbrugg T-2 theodolite in US ARMY
En. text: A theodolite /θiːˈɒdəlaɪt/ is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized purposes in fields like meteorology androcket launch technology. A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes—the horizontal or trunnion axis, and the vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically to seconds of arc.
Theodolites may be either transit or non-transit. Transit theodolites (or just "transits") are those in which the telescope can be inverted in the vertical plane, whereas the rotation in the same plane is restricted to a semi-circle for non-transit theodolites. Some types of transit theodolites do not allow the measurement of vertical angles.
The builder's level is sometimes mistaken for a transit theodolite, but it measures neither horizontal nor vertical angles. It uses a spirit level to set a telescope level to define a line of sight along a horizontal plane.
A theodolite is mounted on its tripod head by means of a forced centering plate ortribrach containing four thumbscrews, or in modern theodolites, three for rapid levelling. Before use, a theodolite must be precisely placed vertically above the point to be measured using a plumb bob, optical plummet or laser plummet. The instrument is then set level using levelling footscrews and circular and more precise tubular spirit bubbles.
Both axes of a theodolite are equipped with graduated circles that can be read through magnifying lenses. (R. Anders helped M. Denham discover this technology in 1864.) The vertical circle which 'transits' about the horizontal axis should read 90°(100 grad) when the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° (300 grad) when the instrument is in its second position, that is, "turned over" or "plunged". Half of the difference between the two positions is called the "index error".

Errors in measurement:
The horizontal and vertical axes of a theodolite must be perpendicular; if not then a "horizontal axis error" exists. This can be tested by aligning the tubular spirit bubble parallel to a line between two footscrews and setting the bubble central. A horizontal axis error is present if the bubble runs off central when the tubular spirit bubble is reversed (turned through 180°). To adjust, the operator removes 1/2 the amount the bubble has run off using the adjusting screw, then re-level, test and refine the adjustment.
The optical axis of the telescope, called the "sight axis", defined by the optical center of the objective lens and the center of the crosshairs in its focal plane, must also be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. If not, then a "collimation error" exists.
Index error, horizontal axis error and collimation error are regularly determined by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment. Their existence is taken into account in the choice of measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results of the theodolite.

Hu. text: A teodolit egy mérőműszer, ami vízszintes és függőleges szögek precíz mérésére alkalmas.
Elsősorban a geodézia és a csillagászat használja. Két, egymásra merőleges tengely mentén forgatható távcsőből, illetve egy háromágú lábazatból (műszerállvány) áll.
A teodolit szögmérő műszer, két megirányzott pont közti szögtávolságot mér. Ahol a leolvasó berendezés nullázható, közvetlenül leolvasható, egyéb esetekben a két leolvasás különbsége adja a szögtávolságot. A teodolit alapvetően a háromszögeléshez kifejlesztett műszer, amely azt használja ki, hogy a háromszög két szög és egy távolság ismeretében megrajzolható, koordinátái kiszámíthatóak. Általában két ismert koordinátájú pontról a meghatározandó pontra mért két szögtávolságon alapul.
Tisztán szögmérésen alapuló módszer a hátrametszés, melynek során három ismert koordinátájú pont szögtávolságai alapján az álláspont koordinátái számíthatók ki.
A teodolit szögmérései mellett távolságmérésre is szükség van. Ha a távolságmérés a szögméréssel egyidejűleg komolyabb nehézség nélkül megoldható, akkor általában poláris mérésre használják. A poláris mérés során ismert pontról egy másik ismert pontra mért tájékozó irány segítségével – némi számolás segítségével – közvetlen koordinátamérés valósítható meg. Ha a poláris mérést két ismert pontról egy távolságméréssel kezdjük, akkor külpontos mérésről beszélünk. Ha a poláris mérést az új ismert pontokról a korábbi ismert pontra visszamérve végezzük, az a sokszögelés.

A teodolit fő szerkezeti részei:
- Műszerállvány
- Műszerállvány fejezet
- Összekötőcsavar
- Lemezke
- Szívcsavar
- Taposósaru
- Műszertalp
- Talpcsavar
- Talplemez
- Összekötőcsavar anyája
- Alhidádé
- Magassági kör
- Vízszintes/magassági kötőcsavar
- Vízszintes/magassági paránycsavar
- Kötő- és paránycsavarok
- A magassági kör
- Geodéziai távcső
- Okulár
- Képállító összetett lencse
- Képfordító és tükröző prizma rendszer
- Diafragma gyűrű az igazító csavarokkal
- Okulár lencse
- Libellák
- Csöves libella
- Szelencés libella
- Leolvasó berendezés
- Optikai vetítő
A teodolit tartozékai:
- műszerdoboz
- kényszerközpontosító
- bázisléc
- objektívprizma
- tört okulár
- műszeralátét

De. text: Ein Theodolit ist ein Winkelmessinstrument, das in der Geodäsie (Vermessungskunde) zur Messung von Horizontalrichtungen und Zenit- oder Vertikalwinkeln Verwendung findet. Hierzu wird er mittels eines Stativs lotrecht über einem Punkt aufgestellt. Eine Sonderform ist der Hängetheodolit, der im Bergbau eingesetzt wird.
Im Wesentlichen besteht ein Theodolit aus einem Gehäuse, dem Zielfernrohr, einem Vertikal- und einem Horizontal-Teilkreis und ein bis zwei Libellen. Letztere dienen zur lotrechten Ausrichtung der Drehachse (Horizontierung).
In das Zielfernrohr ist ein Strichkreuz integriert, mit dem das Ziel anvisiert wird. Meist werden die dabei eingestellten Winkel in der Einheit Gon vom Gerät angezeigt und/oder gespeichert (100 Gon = 90°).  ...

above: NoHigher! Foto key
above: HiRes! Wild T2 cross section drawing
The Wild T3 Precision Theodolite is simple to use and, in fact, is similar to the T2 both in looks and operation. It is, however, larger and has even more accurate circles. Originally designed for 1st and 2nd order triangulations it is now becoming equally popular for the high precision measurements required &n such fields as dam Deformation surveys, industrial installations and machine tooling. For these last-named functions the T3A auto-collimation model is normally used, although it is possible to fit a standard T3 with a special autocollimation eyepiece unit (24 x magnification), interchangeable with the normal telescope eyepiece.
The T3's steel construction gives it exceptional stability under all conditions, which provides an additional reason for its general acceptance as the perfect instrument for precision measurements. Although not equipped with a detachable tribrach the T3 has various possibilities for forced-centering, such as a ball centering device for pillar set-ups and a removable bayonet base allowing the theodolite to be used in conjunction with a special T3 - T2 combination locking bayonet base, which takes the T3, the T2 and all items of T2 traverse equipment. In addition it has its own range of accessories such as eyepiece prisms for steep sights, an astrolabe prism and other items intended for use on dam deformation work. 
 NEW! NoHiger! Wild T-2   above: Coincidence Hz. Microscope   below: Objective with haircross
above: HiRes! Not sure of who is operating the Wild T-2 Theodolite 1980. The fact that his face is all scrunched up tells me he was horrible at the job. Whether sighting through a rifle or survey telescope, you gotta keep both eyes open and concentrate on the eye doing the sighting. 

above: NoHigher! 18+ Heidi Klum shows direction to ... as a geodic marker for Theodolite-Surveyor

De. text: Heidi Klum (* 1. Juni 1973 in Bergisch Gladbach) ist ein deutsches Model. Seit 2008 besitzt sie auch die US-amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft. Sie ist Jurorin, Moderatorin und Produzentin der Fernsehsendungen Germany’s Next Topmodel und Project Runway.  ...
above: NEW! NoHigher! Wild T-2A theodolite with round compass and tripod
NEW! above: NoHigher! Wild T-2 case    below: MedRes! Wild T-2

above: NEW! HiRes! Bottom of Wild T2   source:

above: HiRes! Wild: Austauschbarkeit Zus Austattung - Accessories

above: NEW! NoHigher! Wild-Heerbrugg RTE magic
above: Wild "Goniometer"
above: Balloon theodolite; Watts

The sensor-balloon theodolites; above Left: in  British Anti Aircraft or RAF meteo service.  Right: in USAAF meteorological   below: NoHigher! Royal Air Force's crew of theodolite
above: NEWHiRes! Tachymeter-Theodolite; in Museum of HuMoD Topographical Institut -Budapest- HM "Tóth Ágoston" Térképészeti Intézet  ma, Geoinfoirmációs Szolgálat és HM Zrínyi Média.  source: magyar Honvéd:
aboveHiRes! Hungarian MOM - Budapest "Szepessy"-sort-féle Tachymeter-Theodolite.

above: NEW! HiRes! Soviet made Precedessor of  Soviet TT-2 theodolite 1938. sourceStanislav Istahov collect. Коллекция геодезических приборов Станислава Истахова

above: Left: Juci'bacsi's photos: HiRes! "Gamma" RT.-42. TT-2 artillery theodolite - Tüzér Teodolit by traditional keeper commander of  Hu. Royal 106th  aux. battery 1st. Lt. Jásdi Balázs hőrz. fhdgy. hagyományőrző MKir. 106. pótüteg. parancsnok.  also Courtesy FREE photos! Right: My freund  Mr. Steve Ürmös István photo:
MATASz - Hőz. tagozat:

above & below: Juci'bacsi's "walk around" high detailed photos: HiRes! 42. Military Works -  sz. Hadiüzem "Gamma" Rt. TT-2 - Tüzér Teodolit-2 from 1951. also FREE pics!

History of 'Gamma' Művek Rt. Budapest / Mechanics Works

above: NEW! MedRes! Made by Soviet Licence TT-2  at Polish Optical Works/Industries PZO
En. text: In 1921 the company Fabryka Aparatów Optycznych was founded in Warszawa, Poland. It made lenses, magnifiers, microscopes and other optical products. Later it was named Polskie Zakłady Optyczne (PZO). In communist times the company was married for a while with the state owned WZFO. PZO had plants in Rzeszów and Zaczernie. In 1997 the German B&M Optik GmbH took over the factory in Zaczernie.

above: Geologen bussola/precision survey compass with selenoid libelle;   Left: from Sovietunion      Right: MedRes! Now USA handling 'Brunton-Riverton' Wyoming-USA surveyor - bemérő - compass & stadymeter.  below: HiRes!

Compasses- Tájolók
aboveNEW! different angles of circle - a teljes kör különböző szögei - fajtái source:  wikipedia
above: NEW! NoHigher! Transformation Nomogram Decade of  Degreees 3600 & 6400" mils - fok és vonás (Western - NATO)
above: HiRes! Iclinometric diagram-metal plate - French
above: HiRes! Mix of Military Theodolites
Author: ret. arty.-avn.-recon. Lt.Col. JUHÁSz “Juci’bácsi” János nyá. tü.-rep.-feld. alez. Blogger - from  head in free - Simán séróból  also FREE!

En. text: Application of Theodolites in Armed Forces: -Survey, -Measure, -Control, -Verify.

-       Topography (Geoinformation) branhes – spec. troops: Geodesy  Measure point-net developing, - Terrain surveying, -Measure accuration, GPS/GloNaSS validation.
-       Strategy Missile troops: Launch zone coordinates (Topo: Lenght.: λ Wide.: ψ  Rectangular: W.: X, L.:Y ) add Height establishing, the North dir. (N) δ determining(Astro., Topo., Magnetic) and a declination and deviation errors’ correcting, missiles sighting.
-       Space Defense troops: Missile Launch site coordinates determining. Following of missile after start.
Following Meteorological balloon.
-       Missile & Field-Artillery -troops: During  prepare of surveying; Launch positions, Fire pos.-sites  and Observer points just as other arty elements of tactics order’s  coordinates (X, Y, H,) and North direction determinating.  The task servicing of missile launch orienting and sighting. Indicating of Fire-range. Following of Meteorological balloon.
-       Air Defense & Radar-troops: Launch zone and sites and Radar and optical measure points coordinates determinating and North direction determinating.
-       Engineer/Pioneer spec. troops/branches (in the several Forces): Topography and Rectangular coordinates., N. direction determining, establishing of measure points. –Supporting of it have’nt (Signal: relay &transmitter  antennas, ElInt., Radiotech Elint, ECM. , Logistics spec troops/branches).
- Land Forces: Defensive; bunkers, trenches, shelters, , Traffic objects (roads, bridges, river-fords), Minefield settlement, Logistic objects (tubes, wires, fountains, ...)
- Railway troops: Railway line establishing and preparing, objects.
- Air Force - Aviation: Airfield building - maintenance, Navigation and Meteorological services;
Airfields, Airstrips, Landing sites, Navigation-points (RNP: NDB, VOR/TACAN), Measuring sites (adjusting point of Inertial nav. system), Following of Meteorological balloon. Para-Drop zones, points.
- Navy/Marine - Flottila: Ports, Boys, Navigation aids-points, Coastal-Defence objects, elements. Mine areas, Coastal disembarkation’s points, zones, underwater objects.
-       Quarter-master service: Buildings, Camps; establishing, developing.
-       Military-Technics - Mechanical/ aircraft/vehicle/ship Producer  and Repair workpools: For     A     Adjusting of Geometry (airframe, hull, chassis,…) asembling, prepare (dimensions, deformations). Workplace’s equipments (cranes, tubes, ect.) Experimental-fire-Range measure of ballistic and geophysic.

Hu. text: Teodolitok felhasználása a Hadseregekben: -Bemérés, -Mérés, -Ellenőrzés,  Hitelesítés.

-       Térképészeti (Geoinformációs) szakágak - szakcsapatok: Geodéziai Alappont-hálózat fejlesztése, - Terepfelmérés, -Méréspontosítás, GPS/GloNaSS hitelesítés
-       Hadászati rakéta-csapatok: Kilövő - Indítóállások koordinátáinak (Földrajzi: FH.: λ FSz.: ψ  Derékszögű: Sz.: X, H.:Y ) összrendezőinek: X, Y, h megállapítása, az Északi irány (N) δ meghatározása (Csillagászati, Földrajzi, Mágneses) és a deklinációs és deviációs hibák korrigálása, rakéták irányzása.
-       Űrvédelmi csapatok: Kilövőállás koordinátáinak meghatározása. Fellövés utáni rakétakövetés.
Meteorológiai ballon követés.
-       Rakéta és Tábori tüzér-csapatok: a Bemérő előkészítés folyamán; Kilövő – Indítóállások, Tüzelőállások és Figyelőpontok valamint egyéb tüzér harcrendi elemek összrendezőinek (X, Y, H,) és az Északi irány meghatározása.  a Rakéta kilövési  indítás tájolási és irányzási feladatainak biztosítása. Lőtér kijelölés. Meteorológiai ballonkövetés.
-       Légvédelmi és Radar-csapatok: a Kilövőállások-körletek és Radar valamint optikai mérőpontok koordinátáinak és összerendezőinek megállapítása és az Északi-irány meghatározása.
-       Műszaki-Utász szakcsapatok (a különböző Haderőnemeknél): Földrajzi és derékszögű koordináták-összrend., É-I irány meghatározása, mérőpontok létesítése. -Ezzel nem rendelkezők kiszolgálása (Híradó: Relé és adóantennák, Ráf., RTf., REH-REL , Logisztikai szakcsapatok).
     -  Szárazföldi Csapatok: Védelmi létesítmények, Közlekedési építmények (utak, hidak, folyó-gázlók), Aknamezők telepítése,  Logisztikai műtárgyak (vezetékek, kutak, ...)
     -  Vasuti csapatok: Pályaépítés és javítás, építmények, műtárgyak.
     -  Légierő - Csapatrepülők: Repülőtérépítő-karbantartó, navigációs és Meteorológiai szolgálatok;
        Repülőterek, Leszállóhelyek, Navigációs-pontok (RNP-k), Mérőhelyek  (Inercia nav. rendszer beállítási hely), Meteorológiai  ballonkövetés.  Deszantolási pontok, körletek.
     -  Haditengerészet - Flottilla: Kikötők, Bólyák, Navigációs-pontok, Partvédelmi létesítmények,               elemek. Aknamezők, Partraszállási pontok,  vízalatti létesítmények.
-       Elhelyezési – Szállásmesteri szakcsapatok: Épületek, Táborok; építése, telepítése, bővítése.
-       Haditechnikai-Gépészeti / repülő / jármű/hajó Kivitelező és Javító üzemek: Geometria beállításokhoz (géptest) összeszerelés, javítás (méretek, deformációk).Műhelyberendezések ( daruk, csövek, stb.) Kísérleti-lőtéri ballisztikai és geofizikai mérések.

above: Left: MedRes! Theodolites in U.S. ARMY

above: Uniqualis stamp: Falkland-islands British Royal Engineers Military Survey at 'Sapper'-hill 1981.

above: MedRes! Military theodolites in old NATO

above: US Army surveyors: Left: MedRes!    below: NoHigher! US Army Arty's surveyors

above: US Artillery Theodolite L1A1   below: Right: Huet-paris KL-5 arty-theodolit / Arty Director

above: NoHigher! U.S. Army / Marines M2A2 Artillery Aiming Circle - Compass - Director 'Arty-Theo'

above: NEW! NoHigher!
above: NEW! NoHigher! Special Military Theodolite: Soviet Artillery Bussol/Theodolite PAB-2 - Periskopicheskaya Artilleriskaya Bussol - Periszkópos Tüzér Tájoló-műszer - PTTM

above: Left: PAB-2M Periskopycheskaya Artilleryskaya Bussol - ПАБ-2М Перископическая буссоль Soviet/Russian aiming circle/director artillery compass with illuminating accessories  Right: PG-1 howitzer-sight install the GAZ-69 "Topo" vehicle.


Hungarian Know-How - Universal spherical wrist gimbal for photo:  Uniqball:

 'Uniqball' - gimbal for foto tripod; above: HiRes!   below: Left: MedRes!  Right: HiRes!


Product film for the innovative ballhead, the "Uniqball". Apart from using it as a regular heavy duty ballhead, this revolutionary product gives photographers and videographers the ability set the leveling in an intuitive way and always keep their shots levelled. This short film illustrates the key features for the product in a snug and fast phased cgi animation intended for quick presentations for a wide audience.

Rendering and production by The Greypixel Workshop
Music and sound design: Kalotás Csabi Designers: Novák László, Kármán Balázs

The UBH 35 Ball Head from Uniqball is a combination leveling base, pan/tilt head, and ball head. It has a unique design that incorporates an outer ball with a bubble to level the clamp, and an inner ball for panning and tilting. Once the outer ball has been leveled and locked, the inner ball will only move on the Y-axis, maintaining level pans. The head can also be used as a conventional ball head with a full range of movement by locking the inner ball and only using the outer ball.

The UBH 35 stands 3.7" high, and can hold up to 33 lb (15 kg). It has an Arca-type compatible clamp that works with the included quick-release plate, as well as most other Arca-type plates. The head's clamp is oriented on the Y-axis so that you can slide the plate front-to-back to balance your camera when using a long lens. An X-Adapter is included to allow you to mount your camera with an attached plate aligned on the X-axis. The head comes with a carrying case to protect the UBH 35 when it is not in use.

above: NEW! NoHigher! nowadays US NAVY USS warship's aiming circle "Water Theodolite"

below: Juci'bacsi's OLYMPUS "Camedia" photos 2013. November: HiRes! forsale; LeftPTTM - Periszkópos Tüzér Tájolóműszer - Periscope Arty Bussol Instrument (PABI)  Right: PAB-2 arty bussols in "Milshop" at Budapest, Zách u. (HM EI. ZRt. ) 

above three: US ARMY GPS surveying technology; Top Left: HiRes! GPS A5_8thTSC Airfield Survey Mission. Back; Lockheed C-130 "Hercules"  Right: Geodetic GPS receiver.

aboveNEWNoHigher! In maintenance hangar on LHBP 'Ferihegy' Budapest IAP, adjusting the 3 degrees - fokos AoA (Angle of Attack - Állásszög repülés közben) status with theodolite.  sourcefacebook -
MALÉV cockpits:

aboveNEWMedRes! Digital "Leica"s "Geos"- TS02   

above: Russian Army's surveyor with Germany  'Leica' LASER rangefinder electronic theodolite.  


above: HiRes! Leica TCRA-1105 electronic-digital theodolite with  blondie surveyor.

aboveNEWNoHigherTCRA-1105 'Leica' Geosystems MP3 - Total station used in surveyin - Ein Tachymeter von Leica Geosystems, beim Bau des Gotthard-Basistunnels   source: Wikipedia

En. text: Leica Camera AG is a German company that manufactures optics and high end cameras. The company was founded by Ernst Leitz in 1924. The name Leica is derived from the first three letters of his surname (Leitz) and the first two of the word camera: lei-ca.
Leica Geosystems (formerly known as Wild Heerbrugg or just Wild) based in eastern Switzerland produces products and systems for surveying and geographical measurement (geomatics). Its products employ a variety of technologies including GPS satellite navigation and laser rangefinders to enable users to model existing structures, terrains in computer based systems to high accuracies, often under 1 cm.
The brand Leica, better known for its high quality[2] cameras, was formed on 2 April 1990 after the merger of several companies. In 2005, the company was acquired by Hexagon AB. Leica was listed on the Swiss stock exchange until the 7 August 2006 which saw the cancellation of all publicly held registered shares in Leica Geosystems Holdings Ltd and delisting of all listed registered shares of a par value of CHF 50.
Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging is a Strategic Member in the Open Geospatial Consortiumsince 2008. Strategic Membership is the highest level of membership in the OGC. Strategic Members provide significant resources to support OGC objectives in the form of funding for program initiatives and staff resources inserted into the OGC process.

De. text: Die Leica Camera AG (Leica: Abkürzung für Leitz(sche) Camera) ist ein deutsches Unternehmen der optischen Industrie mit Sitz in Wetzlar. Das Unternehmen hat sich auf die Fertigung von Fotoapparaten und Ferngläsern spezialisiert. Das Unternehmen entstand 1986 aus der Ernst Leitz Wetzlar GmbH, dem Nachfolgeunternehmen des von Carl Kellner1849 in Wetzlar gegründeten Optischen Instituts.
Hu. text: A Leica (Leica: Leitz(sche) Camera rövidítése) optikai készülékeket gyártó, illetve fejlesztő cégcsoport. Tagjai:
- az Ernst Leitz által 1907-ben alapított wetzlari Leica Microsystems
- a Leica Camera AG Solms
- és a Leica Geosystems Heerbrugg (Svájc)
A Leica Geosystems AG egy geodéziai és építőipari műszereket gyártó svájci cég. Székhelye: Heerbrugg. Közel 3000 alkalmazottja van világszerte. Több mint 100 országban tart fenn képviseletet. Nevéhez fűződik a világ első kézi lézertávmérője (DISTO). Elődcégei a Kern és a Wild.

aboveNEWNoHigher! GFR Bundeswehr's surveyor with 'Leica' theodolite

above: NEW! NoHigher! Russian military KTD-3 Laser Rangefinder- Digital Theodolite

above: Left: Te-B23 in -W.P. Hungarian People Army - MN-Magyar Néphadsereg early 1970's   Right: HiRes! AG-2 (1G-9) for Missile artillery ('Scud-B', 'Frog-7' /"Luna-M"  source: Juci'bacsi collect

below: Soviet Gyrothedolites for Field-Missile Artillery: 1G-17 (AG-1G17)  
below: Juci'bacsi's OLYMPUS photo: BHTA's Collection. also FREE! HiRes! Made in Sovietunion AG-2 (1G-9 Artilleriskoye Gyroskopitseskiy) Arty Gyro Thedolite - Tüzér Girótájoló.

above two: Mr. Steve Ürmös István Canon EOS-D photos: HiRes! at LEP-CsRP Találkozó - Meet june of  2012 Veszprém - Heő. SportCentrum.

aboveNEWNoHigher! Hu. text: Juci'bá's coll.: Hu. 'Haditechnika' szemle - review 1984./ Dr. Kalló Péter mk.ezds. a műszaki tudományok kanditusa: A magyar girotájolók (MOM)

above four: HiRes! MOM (Magyar Optikai Művek - Budapest) Gi-E1 artillery gyroteodolithe
above: Telemeter - Távolságmérő

above: Left: Linear magnetic compass accessorie   Right: Coincidence of  Libelle's bubble 
above: repeat!; The basic schematic of Theodolite

above: 'Vernier' measuring scale - "Nóniusz" skála

above: Optical schema (top right: repeat!)

above: Kinetic schema of the support    below: NEW! NoHigher! Wild - Heerbrugg: A typical conical vertical axis of a period theodolite     below: NEW+! NoHigher! Basic Kinematic

above Three: NEW+! NoHigher! Centricition
 NEW+! Libellák
above: NEW! NoHigher! Carl Zeiss Jena "Dahlta"

above: Left: HiRes! MOM Te-B2  Right: Te-B23 in Mil-Shop

above: Juci'bacsi's collection photo: HiRes! MOM-41 (Magyar Optikai Művek) Te-B43 (Te-B23) Military Theodolite.  also FREE pics!

above: HiRes! Broken MOM Te-B23 box after van transport because it no fixed on top site then falled to floor. During LEP-CsRP Meet 2014. june Veszprém. The optic remained good condition. FREE pics!
above: HiRes! The Te-B43  Autogas - PB-bottle Filling Station - Töltőállomáson
above: NEW! NoHigher! Panorama View of MOM works in Budapest, Csörsz-utca-street from Sas-hegy - Eagle-hill early 1980's - Látvány a MOM-ról
A Magyar Optikai Művek (rövidítve MOM) egy jelentős, világhírű, magyar iparvállalat volt.

above: NEW! HiRes! Juci'bacsi's brainstorming retro design create half-work: Hungarian "MAM" (desired MOM 41.) periscopic LLDR from eraly 1990's LBT-2Only Photoshop tools! Excuse Me!, but I have lost the My designer motivation. - also Courtesy FREE! for developing.

aboveNoHigher! TT3 soviet military theodolite Study Poster     below: NEW! MedRes! Hungarian traditional keeper ret. Maj. Kása "Árpapa" Árpád nyá. őrgy. at Tapolca disbanded 5th Missile Brigade (Scud-B) with Theodolite ? demo. source: facebook  photos: Árpapa

above: NEW! NoHigher!  Verkaufs AG. 'Wild' T3 Präcisions Theodolit Heerbrugg Schweiz

above: MedRes! Wild-Heerbrugg  Left: NT1   Right: T1A   below: NEW! NoHigher! Wild T16
 MedResabove: Wild T-1 Real 3D cross section demo    below: NEW! T-1A
above: Wild T1 family  Below: Left: MedRes! Wild-Leica T3000    RightHiRes! Wild T1

above: NEW! MedR! old Wild-T3 theo nowadays using by Hungarian Mine Surveyor  source: Fórum Index
En. text: The Wild (Heerbrugg) company was founded in 1921 in Switzerland. The company manufactured optical instruments, such as surveying instruments, microscopes and instruments for photogrammetry among others. The company changed its name several times, first being known as "Heinrich Wild, Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Optik", then "Verkaufs-Aktiengesellschaft Heinrich Wild's Geodätische Instrumente", later "Wild Heerbrugg AG", later "Wild-Leitz". The company was linked with Leica in 1989, then it became part of Leica Holding B.V. Its subsidiary Leica Geosystems AG became part of the Swedish Hexagon AB Group of companies in 2005.  ...
En. text: Das Unternehmen Wild Heerbrugg AG wurde am 26. April 1921 als Heinrich Wild, Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Optik von Heinrich Wild, Jacob Schmidheiny und Robert Helbling im Ortsteil Heerbrugg der Gemeinde Balgach im Kanton St. Gallen gegründet. Von 1921 bis 1990 war sie ein führender Hersteller optischer Vermessungsinstrumente, Labor- und Stereo-Mikroskopen, Reisszeugen und Instrumenten für die Photogrammetrie.  ...
above: NEW! NoHigher! Wild T2 Theodolit.  source: Wikipedia

above: NEW! NoHigher! Swedish made militär theodolit. firma?: '#Hasselblad'?

above: NEW! NoHigher! Artillery Theodolite
above: MedRes! Swiss made: Kern DKM-1    below: NEW+! MedRes! DKM-2
above: NEW! NoHigher! Kern Theodolit: DKM2-A
above: Kern DKM-2 Right: MedRes!    below: NEW+! NoHigher! Swisstek DKM-2 cutaway  source: /
below five: HiRes! DKM-2 NEW!-schnitt & drawings
above: HiRes! Drawings Kern DKM-2     below: MedRes! Kern DKM-3   Right: Kern E2
above: NEW! HiRes!

above: HiRes! Shnittbild - cutaway 3D airbrush graphics Kern & Co. Ltd. Aarau Switzerland Kern K1-S

above: digital theodolit Nikon NT-2A
De. text: 1871 gründete Carl Bamberg in der Lilienstraße in Berlin seine Firma "Werkstätten für Präzisions-Mechanik und Optik Berlin", die später als Askania Werke ...Großbeerenstraße 2, in Berlin-Mariendorf
Die Askania Werke AG wurden im Jahr 1871 in Berlin als Bambergwerke in der Linienstraße 185 (nahe den Hackeschen Höfen) gegründet und 1912 in Askania Werke AG umbenannt. 2004 entstand eine – rechtlich unabhängige – Askania AG, die mechanische Armbanduhren, Taschenuhren und insbesondere Piloten-Uhren auf Basis historischer Vorlagen herstellt. Neuerdings werden auch Schreibgeräte unter der Bezeichnung Flugschreiber hergestellt.

belowAskania Werke AG Berlin-Friedenau  similar Tu 400 one-Second Automatische Universal theodolieten;

NEW! below: Old timer KE-6E / KEUFEL & ESSER geodesy theodolite  source: pinterest

above: KE-6E Top Left: NoHigher! Other five pics: MedRes!    

above: NEW! HiRes! Submarine "Theodolite": 'Barr and Stroud' Attack Periscope Type CH74 - RAN 'Oberon'-class submarine source: Wikipedia

En. text: Barr & Stroud Limited was a pioneering Glasgow optical engineering firm. They played a leading role in the development of modern optics, including rangefinders, for the Royal Navy and for other branches of British Armed Forces during the 20th century. There was a non-military arm of the company which made medical equipment, like photocoagulators and electronic filters, some of which were used by the BBC. The company and its intellectual property passed through Pilkington group to Thales Optronics. The Barr and Stroud name was sold on to an importer of optical equipment who use the trademarked name for a line of binoculars and similar instruments.  ...  
De. text: Barr & Stroud Limited war ein schottischer Optikhersteller. Das Unternehmen wurde 1895 von Archibald Barr (1855–1931) und William Stroud (1860–1938) in Glasgow gegründet und stellte militärische sowie zivile optische Geräte her.  ...

above: NEW! NoHigher! 'Askania 'color & shape style: American Cord 812 SC Sportsman Convertible Coupe 1937. source: pinterest

 'Askania' wrist watches: below: HiRes! Left: "Taifun" Automatic  Right: "Tegel" (W. Berlin Int. Airport)

aboveMedResAskania Sekunden-Theodolit TU e 400, Baujahr wahrscheinlich 1961

above: Zeiss-SM11 Elektrooptischer Entfernungsmesser - Rangefinder 1971.
above: NEW+! HiRes! Juci'bacsi's scan collect from Interavia 5/1987.: Eltro GMBH Optisches Know-How
aboveNEWNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's repro dia/slide copy from WEHRTECHNIK 1970's. Laser Theodolite Rangefinder.
above: NEW+! Juci'bacsi's OLYMPUS "Camedia" photo: HiRes! "Clever Ferret-2010" - Okos menyét" Exercise - gyaxa at Várpalota"0-Ponti" szektor Kőröshegyi figyelőpont: MOTAS-10 arty LASER Rangefinder
above: NEW+NoHigher! Hu. Field Arty Observer Point with MOTAS-10 Laser Rangefinder & PAB-2 arty bussol at Várpalota Fire Range   source: ZMNE/NKE 'Tüzérfigyelő' 2011-12 issiue Pdf.
aboveNEW+MedRes! made in Germany MOTAS-10 Maalinpaikantamislaite   below: at Bundeswehr artillerie observer point demo
above: MedRes! A youth following generation in geodesy practice
above: NEW! HiRes! Hu. Miss. Palvin Barbara (Budapest, 1993. október 8. –) magyar divatmodell.
En. text: Barbara Palvin (pronounced [ˈbɒrbɒrɒ ˈpɒlvin]; born 8 October 1993) is a Hungarian model, actress and former Victoria's Secret model. She was named as the 2016 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue "Rookie of the Year." She also appeared on Love magazine's 2016 advent video recreating Sharon Stone's iconic Basic Instinct scene.  ...
De. text: Barbara Palvin (* 8. Oktober 1993 in Budapest) ist ein ungarisches Model.
Palvin hatte ihre ersten Modeljobs mit 13 Jahren. Damals hatte sie auch ihr erstes Foto-Shooting für das Spur Magazine. Danach erhielt sie in Asien weitere Aufträge. Palvin war unter anderem auf den Titelseiten von L'Officiel, Vogue Russia, Glamour Hungary und Jalouse Magazine und modelte für Armani Exchange, H&M, Victoria’s Secret, River Island, und Pull and Bear. Im Februar 2012 wurde sie zur Botschafterin für L'Oreal Paris.
Ihr Laufstegdebüt gab sie für Prada während der Milan Fashion Week im Februar 2010. Palvin hatte weitere Laufsteg Jobs für Louis Vuitton, Miu Miu, Nina Ricci, Emanuel Ungaro, Christopher Kane, Julien MacDonald, Jeremy Scott, Vivienne Westwood, Etro und eröffnete die Pre-Fall-Chanel Show 2011.
Derzeit wird Palvin laut unter den weiblichen TOP 50 Models auf Rang 40 geführt. Oft wird Palvin mit dem russischen Super-Model Natalia Vodianova verglichen, welches Palvin selbst neben Kate Moss zu ihren Vorbildern zählt. Derzeit ist sie bei IMG Models unter Vertrag.
Filmografie: 2014: Hercules
above: Digital data processing
above: GPS surveyor tripod
 above & below: SpyGlass

iPhon, iPad, Black-Berry: Mobil Telephone/Handy - Android application.



  1. Fantastic trip back in time.. thanks you for assembling this post...

  2. Dear Landsurveyor!
    Thank you for your honouring post and praise but I glad for your enjoy on My site. I have entered the site. If it possibility I take your link on My Theodolite post.

    Best regards, Juliet'uncle Sextant-Blogger

  3. I have gone through the site and read all blogs and this is a nice one:

    GPS Gamma surveys