Wednesday, November 22, 2017

206.) U-Boat TR-1700 sub catastrophic mission in Argentina NAVY & Germany Typs-209 "Kobben" klasse Dil.-Elc. U-Boot

Eltűnt tengeralattjáró - Lost U-Boat TR-1700 submarine catastrophic mission in Argentina NAVY 2017.11.15. South-Atlantic ocean & Germany Typs-209 "Kobben" klasse - class Diesel-Electric U-Boot cutaway, Skizze Zeichnung - подводная лодка (Wikipedia)

27.11.2017.- Upload: 94%: 14.12.2017.:++++++
above: NoHigherArgentinian TR-1700 'San Juan' missed-sub 2017.11.19  (Hz. Crop!)
De. text: News! Argentinien Marine geht von Explosion auf verschollenem U-Boot aus
dpa, 23.11.2017 - 15:42 Uhr
Das U-Boot "A.R.A. "San Juan" auf einem undatiertes Archivfoto: in Bahia Blanca. Foto: Juan Sebastian Lobos/Armada Argentina/telam (Foto: dpa) ...
above & below: NoHigher! 'San Juan' and Argentine Navy HDW TR-1700 submarines ARA Santa Cruz (S-41) and ARA San Juan (S-42)
En. text: The TR-1700 ("Santa Cruz") is a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines built by Thyssen Nordseewerke for the Argentine Navy in the 1980s. These ships are amongst the largest submarines built in Germany since World War II and are among the fastest diesel-electric submarines in the world.
Development: The original 1977 plan called for six boats, two TR-1700s built in Germany by Thyssen Nordseewerke, two in Argentina by Astillero Domecq Garcia, and two smaller TR-1400s also built in Argentina. The final agreement in 1982 was modified to six TR 1700s.[citation needed] The TR-1700s to be built in Argentina were considered for an upgrade to a nuclear submarine using INVAP's CAREM reactor, which began development at that time. The nuclear submarine project never came to fruition, despite later attempts to revive it.
Design: The submarine was designed by Thyssen and its features include high underwater speed, endurance (for a diesel submarine), and survivability. The boat's four MTU diesel engines, four generators, and Siemens electric motor can propel it at speeds up to 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). Eight 120-cell batteries are installed on each boat. They have a diving depth of 300 m (980 ft). Normal endurance of these boats is 30 days with an extended range up to 70 days. These boats are equipped to accept a Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV). Armaments include six bow 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes and 22 SST (Special Surface Target) or Mark 37 torpedo. The automatic torpedo reload system can reload the tubes in 50 seconds.

Thyssen proposed the TR1700A for the Australian Collins-class submarine program. The proposed design had a reworked pressure hull, was six meters longer, and half a meter wider than the TR1700s built for Argentina. It lost to the Type 471 from Kockums, an enlarged Västergötland-class submarine.
Service: The first two submarines were delivered on schedule in 1984-85. The remaining four built in Argentina were suspended due to the Argentinean economic crisis of the 1980s. In 1996 work completely ceased on ARA Santa Fe at 70 % (or 52 %) completion while ARA Santiago del Estero was only 30 percent complete. After attempts to complete and sell the boats to Taiwan failed they were cannibalized, along with the parts for the fifth and sixth units, to support the continued operations of the first two submarines.

Santa Cruz received its mid-life modernization at Arsenal de Marinha, Rio de Janeiro Brazil between September 1999 and 2001. The work involved the replacement of the engines, batteries, and sonar. Her sister boat San Juan entered the Astillero Domecq Garcia shipyard to receive her refit in 2007; she completed refit in 2013.
In September 2010 it was revealed that the Ministry of Defense was conducting feasibility studies to decide if ARA Santa Fe (S-43) should be completed. The decision should be made sometime after completing the mid-life modernization of ARA San Juan (S-42). The estimated cost of completing Santa Fe was $60 million.
On 17 November 2017, the ARA San Juan was reported missing; reports of a fire are unsubstantiated and have been denied by the Argentine Navy.  ...
History: in Argentina
Name: ARA San Juan
Builder: Thyssen Nordseewerke, Emden, Federal Republic of Germany
Completed: 28 June 1983
Commissioned: 19 November 1985
Fate: Unknown; search currently underway
Status: in service
General characteristics:
Class and type: TR-1700-class submarine
Displacement: 2,140 tonnes (surfaced)
                        2,336 tonnes (submerged)
Length: 65.93 m (216.3 ft)
Beam: 8.36 m (27.4 ft)
Draught: 7.34 m (24.1 ft)
Propulsion: 1 shaft 4 × MTU diesels
                   1 × Siemens electric motor
Speed:  15 knots (28 km/h) surfaced
             25 knots (46 km/h) submerged
Range: 12,000 nmi (22,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h) surfaced
Endurance: 30 days
Complement: 37
Sensors and processing systems:
- Radar Thompson CSF Calypso
- Sonar Atlas Elektronik CSU 3/4, Thompson Sintra DUUX-5
Armament: 6 × 533 mm (21 in) bow torpedo tubes
                   22 torpedoes
MedRes! above: A.R.A. "San Juan" in Port of M.d.P.   below: It with ARA Naval Aviation "Seaking" ASW heli.   source:

Boats in class

Ship Pennant number Builder Completed Status
ARA Santa Cruz S-41 Thyssen Nordseewerke 18 October 1984 In service with Argentine Navy
ARA San Juan S-42 Thyssen Nordseewerke 19 November 1985 In service with Argentine Navy
ARA Santa Fe S-43 Astillero Domecq Garcia Construction suspended - 70% (or 52%) complete
Boat could be completed after feasibility studies
ARA Santiago Del Estero S-44 Astillero Domecq Garcia Construction suspended - 30% complete
(none) S-45 Astillero Domecq Garcia Construction suspended - Little complete
Components cannibalized for spares
(none) S-46 Astillero Domecq Garcia Suspended
Components cannibalized for spares
above: MedRes! Armada Argentine, Navy's sailor in Ushuaia-argentina port  by:   E1E5MY 
above: NoHigher! Mar del Plata A.R.A. port - kikötő   below: MedRes! During port maneuvering

above: MedRes A.R.A. Armada de la República Argentina  TR1700 "San Juan" - Argentin Köztársaság Haditengerészete
above: MedRes! Armada delegacion   source:
Hu. text: A tengeralattjárón volt az argentin haditengerészet első női tisztje is. A 35 éves Eliana María Krawczyk felelt a hajó legénységének fegyelméért – írta a Reuters.
Ha a hajótest nem süllyedt 300 méter alá, nem sérült meg, és nem árasztotta el a víz, akkor még életben lehet a legénység. Elvileg fel vannak készítve ilyen vészhelyzetre, a protokoll szerint ekkor minden mozgást, beszédet a minimálisra kell csökkenteni, hogy minél kevesebb oxigén fogyjon – elméletileg ennek az utasításnak a betartatásáért most Krawczyk felel a hajón.  ... 
below: NoHigher! Maria Krawczyk  (Polish descent - Lengyel származású) photo - fotó: Social Media
Argentinian Navy submarine with 44 crew lost Update: submarine found? source: REUTERS
above & below: MedRes! Naval Port in Mare del Plata (You can See the Submarine over!)

Erofey Schkvarkin 
NewsNovember 20, 2017 6:15 pm
Post Views: 76,181
Nov 20 CNN latest: News!
(CNN)Argentina’s navy on Nov 20 picked up what could be noises from the country’s missing submarine and said the sub’s captain reported a “failure” in the vessel’s battery system before it disappeared.
The sonar systems of two ships detected noises sounding like tools being banged against the hull of a submarine, according to a senior US Navy official familiar with the Navy’s assistance in the search for the vessel.
The official said that crews of submarines in distress bang on the vessel’s hull to alert passing ships to their location. The missing submarine — the ARA San Juan — has a crew of 44.
The Argentinian navy was able to fix the rough location of the sounds and is now concentrating its search in an area of 35 square nautical miles approximately 330 miles off the coast of Argentina, the official said.
Hopefully, this is it, and submarine is to be located soon. After it’s found, crew life-support may be provided with connections providing air, power, some supplies and warmth – crew should be freezing down there, it’s one of the main risks in case of a major accident. Much will depend on the depth, the more is the depth, the more difficult is the task of getting sailors out.

Nov 20 Update: No news on any traces found, signals detected on Nov 18 probably originated from other source. News are mostly related to search operation, describing extra resources which were deployed recently, and new areas designated for search. Argentinian Navy Command didn’t yet reveal most vital information – underwater survivability deadline, based on all known to Headquarters data (batteries charge level, time she was underwater prior to missing date/time, her max present underwater survivability, etc.); and most probable depths she’s on (below or above crush depth). Argentinian Navy Shipyard engineer said “reserves of oxygen allow submarine to stay underwater for several days”. It may be up to 10 days, then?

Nov 19: Seven indistinct satellite signals were detected by Argentinian Navy on Nov 18, rekindling hopes of SAR success. No details were given with regards to these signals, except that signals may indicate, that the crew is trying to re-establish contact, so Navy is working to locate the source of the emissions. Could those signals be sent from submarine itself, or could they be signals sent by damaged emergency buoy on the surface, with malfunctioning communication equipment? Was the buoy – if it was a buoy – already surfaced, or did crew manage to release the buoy, is it attached to submarine, or is it drifting? There are just too many options to build up more or less plausible version, so all we can do is again, hope and pray.
If all communication equipment is inoperable or malfunctioning, there’s only one way for the crew of disabled submarine resting on bottom to alert rescuers and indicate its’ position. The one which was used since the first known submarine disasters in early 20-th century, and rescued many lives. It’s sound – making noise just by banging something metal against submarine’s steel hull.

Nov 18 evening: According to latest news evening Nov 18, no trace of ARA SAN JUAN found yet. Argentinian Navy Command said some 80% of the area of submarine’s possible position were already searched.
Most important questions now are the underwater endurance of ARA SAN JUAN, and the depth she’s in. Here’s more detailed description of TR-1700-class submarine:
The submarine was designed by Thyssen and its features include high underwater speed, endurance (for a diesel submarine), and survivability. The boat’s four MTU diesel engines, four generators, and Siemens electric motor can propel it at speeds up to 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). Eight 120-cell batteries are installed on each boat. They have a diving depth of 300 m (980 ft). Normal endurance of these boats is 30 days with an extended range up to 70 days.
I’ve been trained as a reserve officer (all Soviet Merchant Marine officers were), Commander of Battle Station 1, diesel submarines, and served several months on board of Soviet Foxtrot-class submarine, with maximum underwater endurance of 3-4 days, without snorkel use. After that, you have either to surface, or to die. 30 days endurance for a conventional diesel submarine, not AIP, sounds fantastic for me, but who knows. Of course we have to forget about snorkel, ARA SAN JUAN can’t use it. If ARA SAN JUAN is capable of staying underwater for about a week or more, and if the disaster which befell her doesn’t sink her, killing most or all crew, then there’s still a good chance of survival and rescue, I believe.

Nov 18 Latest: The International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office (ISMERLO), organization dedicated to the search and rescue of sunk submarines around the world, claimed it detected ARA SAN JUAN about 300 kilometers east of Puerto Madryn at some 70 meters depth. No confirmation yet, official news say submarine search continues. If submarine is really found at 70-meter depth, there’s a good chance of rescuing the crew.

Nov 18: Full-scale SAR is under way in waters near the last known position of missing submarine, including all available Navy ships and planes, and merchant marine and fishing vessels in the area. There are 44 crew on board, initial reports mentioning storage battery fire weren’t not confirmed by latest updates, but weren’t renounced, either. Emergency beacon didn’t surface (which is very upsetting by itself – it happens, like in some cases with USSR Navy submarines, but quite rarely), and that seems to be the main problem – rescuers don’t know exact position of the submarine, and therefore, can’t locate her. All those who offered help in rescuing submarine, including Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Peru, the United States, Great Britain and South Africa, can’t do much until submarine is found, unless they are capable of a quick delivery of search and detection equipment and specialists.
Argentinian Navy Command kept it secret maybe for too long, for two days, and in all probability, could continue hiding the accident, if not crew families worries, which inevitably, would leak the news. It’s a curse of all or nearly all Navies, they’re too secretive, risking the lives of the sailors or sacrificing them, in the name of honor and reputation. More often, than not, it’s not honor, it’s fear of Navy Brass of possible repercussions.

Nov 17 news:
Argentina Navy submarine ARA SAN JUAN disappeared in waters of Puerto Madryn, northern Patagonia, Argentina, contact with submarine manned with 40 crew lost since Nov 15. It was said that submarine was already located and taken on tow, being disabled after fire, but according to most recent news, citing Navy officials, submarine wasn’t found, her fate, and fate of the crew, unknown.
On a photo Eliana Maria Krawczyk, one of the crew of the missing submarine in officer’s rank.
Submarine ARA SAN JUAN, TR-1700-class diesel-electric submarine in active service with the Argentine Navy, built 1983, displacement: 2140 tonnes (surfaced) 2336 tonnes (submerged), armament torpedoes. ...

26 November 2017: No sign of the vessel has been reported since November 15, shortly after the captain reported an electrical fault.
The missing Argentine submarine San Juan was carrying beyond its allowed capacity, declared the brother of a crew member to local media on Sunday.  ...
NOV 20 2017, 8:21 PM ET: A U.S. Navy rescue crew from San Diego has joined the international search effort for a Argentine submarine and its 44 crew members missing for several days beneath the stormy southern Atlantic Ocean.
Navy sailors with Undersea Rescue Command (URC) departed Miramar Saturday with a Submarine Rescue Chamber (SRC) and four aircraft, en route to where the ARA San Juan lost contact with the Argentine Navy Wednesday.
As waves of up to 20 feet complicated the search, authorities spent Sunday analyzing data from possible satellite calls that were thought to have been made from the vessel.  ...
My name is Mikhail Voytenko, I’m Russian, professional merchant marine navigator by education and former experience. Presently, I’m most popular maritime journalist in Russia, Ukraine and among Russian-speaking communities around the world. I’ve been involved in several world-famous accidents, including the hijack of ro-ro Faina and mysterious disappearance of timber carrier Arctic Sea (it was me in fact, who made that disappearance public, and because of that story I had to flee Russia).
I maintain Maritime Bulletin as a private maritime news and analysis website for more than 10 years. Recently, I developed website, blog actually, into a news agency, with the help of contributors. All of them are working in maritime industry, most of them are active seamen, sending me news and information from around the globe.
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De. text: News!: Tarnkappen-U-Boote sind kaum aufzufinden:
Seit einer Woche suchen Schiffe, Flugzeuge und Unterwasser-Roboter fieberhaft nach dem verschwundenen argentinischen U-Boot ARA San Juan. Die moderne Tarnkappentechnologie solcher U-Boote erschwert die Suche.

Militärische U-Boote sind dafür gebaut, möglichst unsichtbar durch die Weltmeere zu fahren - unerkannt von Feinden, Gegnern und Spionen. Sie tauchen nur selten auf, um Funk- oder Telefonkontakt zu ihren Hauptquartieren aufzunehmen und verhalten sich sonst meistens still.
Das gilt natürlich im Notfall nicht mehr. Dann müssen die Besatzungen deutlich auf sich aufmerksam machen: Sie können an der Wasseroberfläche Notrufsignale absetzen oder unter Wasser Klopfzeichen oder andere akustische Zeichen geben.
Dabei kommt ihnen aber unter Umständen die Bauform ihrer U-Boote in die Quere, denn die ist darauf ausgelegt, dass möglichst alle Signale geschluckt werden.  ...
Nov 28 LatestArgentina's corvette that has to deliver a Russian bathyscaphe to the area where the search operation of the missing San Juan submarine is ongoing, has set off from the port of Comodoro Rivadavia.
COMODORO RIVADAVIA (Sputnik) — Argentina's Robinson corvette with Russian experts on board has left for the area where the search operation of the missing Argentina's San Juan submarine is ongoing, a Sputnik correspondent reported on Tuesday.
The corvette with Russian and Argentine experts has departed from the port of Comodoro Rivadavia.
The corvette moored in the port on Monday at 4:40 p.m. local time (19:40 GMT) and is expected to deliver the Russian Panther Plus submersible to the search operation zone.  ...
Nov 28.: Water entered Argentinian submarine's snorkel hours before it vanished - Navy reveals 12 DAYS after it went missing
A spokesman said today that the intake of water had caused the battery of the ARA San Juan to short-circuit before it vanished on November 15
The snorkel is a device which allows a submarine to operate submerged while still taking in air from the surface.
Hope is dwindling among some families of the 44-member crew - who were only believed to have had enough air to survive for a week if submerged.
It was revealed last week that the San Juan had only a seven-day oxygen supply when it lost contact.
A sudden noise that was widely reported having been detected the Navy now says could in fact have been the implosion of the vessel.  ...

above: NoHigher! Ausbild fahrstand und Ausbild tiefenruder
above: NoHigher! U-204 -submarines sacrifice-  source:
above: NoHigher! E-R Telegraph: U-Boot maschinentelegraph wanduhr - wallclock
Movie: Das Boot - A Tengeralattjáró

above: MedRes! Passage & Turkey crew: 'Savuna Ve Havacilik'

above: NEW! MedRes! WW-Two Subsimulator Radar Screen - Radarképernyő  source:
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.:  about FRG "WehrTechik" review: Türkish Navy FRG made U-Boot

aboveNoHigher! D1795 Control-Room: radar station with Tube of loud-speaker

above: NoHigher! PPI - Plan Position Indicator RaDAR - Radio Detection And Ranging
NEW! NoHigher! Sub radar station source: Pinterest   below: radar display  source:
above: NEW! NoHigher! Kelvin-Hughes radar display on CRT screen
aboveMedRes! Planned route distance: cca. 2.300 Km. map and theory - feltételezés  source:
above: NoHigher! German HDW TR-1700 'Santa Cruz' class   source:
Hu. text: HírA múlt héten rutinmunkára indult az argentin haditengerészet ARA San Juan tengeralattjárója. A 44 tagú legénység feladata az volt, hogy elriassza az illegális halászhajókat Patagónia partjainak közeléből, de szerdán reggel nem sokkal 7 óra 30 perc után a kapitány jelezte, hogy rövidzárlat keletkezett a jármű akkumulátorrendszerében.  ...
Hu. text: HírA San Juan nevű, német gyártmányú tengeralattjáró – amelyet 1985-ben állítottak hadrendbe Argentínában, s amelyet néhány évvel ezelőtt újítottak fel – november 13-án indult el az ország egyik legdélibb pontjáról, Ushuaiából saját támaszpontja, a fővárostól 400 kilométerre délre fekvő Mar del Plata felé. Utoljára két nappal később a San Jorge öböl térségéből, az argentin partoktól 432 kilométerre jelentkezett be, onnantól kezdve azonban semmit nem lehet tudni róla.  ...

Hu. text: Hír! Még élhet a szerdán eltűnt argentin tengeralattjáró legénysége, amely után egyelőre sikertelenül kutatnak az Atlanti-óceánon. Pontos helyét mindeddig nem tudták meghatározni, és tovább csökkenti az esélyeket, hogy kiderült: sem a szombaton segélyhívásnak vélt rádiójelek, sem a hétfőn kopácsolásnak vélt morzejelek nem a hajótestből jöttek. Negyvennégy emberért – köztük Argentína első tengeralattjárón szolgáló női tisztjéért – folyik a halálos versenyfutás.
- 44 emberrel a fedélzetén tűnt el az argentin haditengerészet tengeralattjárója november 15-én. A hajó ekkor adott jelet utoljára magáról. Felkutatása két nappal később kezdődött.
- Egyre kisebb az esély arra, hogy vannak túlélők: a levegő lassan elfogyhat, de az is lehet, hogy a hajótest olyan mélyre merült, hogy összeroppant.
- A korábbi reményekkel ellentétben kiderült, mégsem fogtak jelet a hajóról.
- A kutatásban az Egyesült Államok, Nagy-Britannia és több dél-amerikai ország is részt vesz.
Ha meg is találják a hajót és túlélők is vannak rajta, még mindig kevés az esély, hogy sikerül őket kimenteni.
- A munkálatokat az is nehezíti, hogy a térségben az Atlanti-óceánon heves vihar dúl.  ...
Hu. text: Hír! 2017.11.24.: Bizakodás után borzasztó hírrel sokkolták a tengerészek családjait.
InfoRádió / Szvetnik Endre (London) 2017.11.24. 08:00
Az argentin haditengerészet megerősítette, hogy egy „abnormális” hangot rögzítettek a tenger mélyéről, azon a napon, amikor a San Juan tengeralattjáró eltűnt. Egy szóvivő szerint a hang „robbanásra utal”.  ...

Csütörtökön került nyilvánosságra, hogy szokatlan zajt, hidroakusztikus anomáliát rögzítettek három órával a tengeralattjáró utolsó bejelentkezését követően abból a térségből, ahol eltűnt. Később arról számolt be a haditengerészet, hogy olyan információkat kapott, amelyek szerint a rögzített anomália robbanás hangja lehetett. A szonárral rögzített feltűnő jelenséget egy egyesült államokbeli intézet rögzítette, de erről csak most értesítette az argentin hatóságokat  ...
Hu. text: Hír! 2017.11.28.:A légszívóba került víz okozhatta az argentin tengeralattjáró vesztét: Joób Sándor MTI/
Víz ömlött a hajó légszívójába, ami rövidzárlatot okozott az egyik akkumulátorban. Ez vezethetett a 12 napja eltűnt San Juan tengeralattjáró katasztrófájához, mondta Enrique Balbi, az argentin haditengerészet szóvivője. A 44 fős személyzet valószínűleg nem élte túl a katasztrófát, miután víz alatti robbanást is észleltek abban a térségben, ahonnan november 15-én utoljára jelentkezett be a hajó, írja az MTI.
Azóta semmi jel nem érkezett a tengeralattjáróról, és a hajótestet sem találják, bár nemzetközi akció indult a felkutatására. Szakértők kezdettől fogva azt mondták, hogy a személyzetnek legfeljebb 10 napi levegőtartaléke lehetett, ha a hajó sértetlen állapotban süllyedt az óceán mélyére.
A haditengerészet a múlt héten jelentette be, hogy a San Juan eltűnése előtt a kapitány az egyik akkumulátorkamrában keletkezett elektromos problémáról számolt be. Ezután arra kapott parancsot, hogy térjen vissza a fővárostól 400 kilométerre délre lévő Mar del Plata-i támaszpontjára.
A hadihajó november 13-án indult vissza az ország legdélebbi csücskéből, Ushuaia kikötőjéből. A haderőnem szóvivője, Enrique Balbi hétfőn újságíróknak elárulta: a kapitány akkor arról számolt be, hogy víz ömlött be a hajó légszívóján keresztül, miközben éppen zajlott az akkumulátorok töltése.
A víz a szellőztetőrendszeren keresztül folyt be a hajóorrba, az ott lévő egyik akkumulátorrekeszbe, ahol a csatlakozókon "rövidzárlatot és egy kezdődő tüzet okozott, vagy lángok nélküli füstöt" - magyarázta. Balbi ugyanakkor hozzátette, hogy a kapitány később műholdas telefonon keresztül azt jelentette, hogy a problémát megszüntették.
Az akkumulátort le kellett választaniuk az elektromos hálózatról, és egy másik akkumulátor-áramkört használva kellett folytatniuk víz alatti útjukat Mar del Plata felé, mondta a szóvivő.
A Németországban megépített, TR-1700-osztályú, dízel-elektromos meghajtású San Juan 1985-ben állt szolgálatba, s 2008 és 2013 között átfogó felújításon esett át. A legénység tagjainak hozzátartozói kifogásolták a haditengerészet szerintük nem megfelelő reagálását a hajó eltűnésére, és problémásnak nevezték a vízi jármű korát és állapotát is.
Mauricio Macri argentin elnök vizsgálatot ígért a katasztrófa ügyében. A haditengerészet szerint több mint egy tucat ország segít jelenleg a tengeralattjáró utáni kutatásban abban a térségben, ahol a robbanást érzékelték. Balbi azt mondta, várhatóan hétfőn (helyi idő szerint) érkezik a térségbe az a norvég hajó, amely az amerikai haditengerészet távirányítású kutatójárművét és annak mentőegységét hozza magával.

 above: NoHigher! Wirelles Communication: HF, UHF, VLF - Rádió Komm. :RH, URH, HH
above: NoHigher! Canadian 'Oberon' class Script Comm. Device - Titkosító Berendezés
above. NoHigher! Germany 'Junghans' Radio Room Warship Clock
NoHigher! above: Die Woche with Sextant - Szeksztáns - Szextant 
above Two: NEW! NoHigher! Volhertrechner - Range finder of German attack periscope ASR C/6 - Támadó periszkóp távolságmeghatározó skála
NoHigher! above  source:  & below Two: Periscope

above: NoHigher! Vintage Marine #Wall-Clock -  Korabeli Tengerészeti #Falióra

above: NoHigher! Nautical Navigation design: Praktica - graphic by: Evgenhy Kurganov
above Two: HiRes! Sorry! (Reduced from 5400px to 1600px!)   Bottom: World Relief ETOPO ice-relief Map from:  source: NOAA-UDoC
NoHigher! Earth Night Density of Lights     below: MedRes! Lights in South American Continent
above: MedRes! South America & Antartica - Dél Amerika és Antarktisz  source: Google-Earth
above: MedResSAO Vessel/Ship traffic  by:      below: NoHigher! Atlantic ocean  source: thingling
above: HiRes! (Intentionaly Rotate to Hz. for 1600px!) Hu. text Political map of South America - Politikai Felosztása. ("Postel-féle" ferdetengelyű vetület - "Postel-sotie" Slanting-axis projctile)
above: HiRes! SHN Argentina coverage of Nautical Charts  by: GeoGarage
above: HiRes! (Crop!) Color ETOPO  relief map - domborzati térkép: The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan  source: noAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - U.S. Department of Commerce    below: NoHigher! Cross-Section of Atlantic ocean - Keresztmetszet
 NoHigherabove: Diagram of the continental shelf and slope of the southeastern United States leading down to the ocean floor.    belowCross-section of continental margin depicting the particular elements   source: Wikipedia
En. Text: The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods.
The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf.
The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0.5–1°.
Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the name continental shelf was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs.  ..  
De. text: Schelf, Kontinentalschelf, Kontinentalsockel, Festlandsockel sind Bezeichnungen für den meist randlichen Bereich eines Kontinentes, der von Meer bedeckt ist. Ein solches Meer wird Schelfmeer genannt. Reicht dieses Schelfmeer relativ weit ins Innere des Kontinents, spricht man auch von einem Epikontinentalmeer („auf dem Kontinent befindliches Meer“).
Es. text: La plataforma continental es la superficie de un fondo submarino próximo a la costa y con profundidades inferiores a 200 metros. Su amplitud desde la costa es variable, desde escasos metros hasta cientos de kilómetros. Es la continuación submarina de los continentes,1​ es decir, su basamento geológico está constituido por corteza continental.2​ En ella abunda la vida animal y vegetal por lo que es de gran importancia económica.
El Convenio de Ginebra de 1958 sobre plataforma continental, en su artículo 1, entendía por plataforma continental:  ...

Hu. text: A kontinentális self a kontinensek körüli, kis vízmélységű, kis lejtésű tenger alatti terület, amelynek a kontinensekhez hasonlóan kontinentális kérge van, ellentétben a mélytengerfenéki óceáni kéreggel. A selfet és a mélytengerfeneket köti össze a kontinentális kérgű kontinentális lejtő.
A self kontinens felé eső határának az apálykori vízhatárt szokták tekinteni, a kontinentális lejtő felőli határának pedig azt a helyet, ahol hirtelen megnövekszik a tengerfenék lejtése. Ez általában 125-180 méteres mélységben van, de az Antarktisz körül a jégnyomás miatt 500-1000 méteres mélységben. Ha a hirtelen megváltozó mélyülés helye nem meghatározható, akkor a 200 méteres mélységet szokták a self határának tekinteni.  (
No more info!)
above: NoHigher! English & Hungarian text. Glacial sorround - Glaciális környezet: Continental shelf Axonometry drawing - Kontinentális talapzat Axonometrikus ábra
above: MedRes! Control room of thein HMS 'Oberon' class "Onyx" or "Onondaga" submarine, Site historique maritime de la Pointe au-pere, Rimouski, Quebec, Canada 2012.
 belowNoHigher! TR-1700 'Santa Cruz' class   source:
De. text: U-Boot-Klasse Die Klasse TR 1700 ist eine Klasse von diesel-elektrischen U-Booten der deutschen Nordseewerke, gebaut als Exportentwurf.
Geschichte: Die TR 1700 ist ein komplett neu entwickeltes Design, so sind die Tiefenruder im Gegensatz zur Klasse 206 und 209 am Turm angebracht, außerdem besteht die TR 1700 aus zwei Decks statt aus wie üblich einem. Die Ausstattung des Bootes ist flexibel gestaltet worden, so waren eine größere (TR 1700A) und zwei kleinere (TR 1400 und TR 1100) Versionen vorgesehen, die jedoch nie in Bau gingen.
Die einzigen Bestellungen für den Typ gingen von den Streitkräften Argentiniens ein, die insgesamt sechs Einheiten orderten. Zunächst wurden zwei Boote in Emden gebaut, vier weitere sollten in Lizenz in Argentinien gefertigt werden. Zwei in der Version TR 1400 bestellte Exemplare wurden später in TR 1700 geändert. Die für die Produktion benötigte Ausrüstung kam in Argentinien an, die Einheiten wurden jedoch auf Grund von Budget-Problemen nicht fertiggestellt.
Verschwinden der ARA San Juan 2017
Im November 2017 brach die ARA San Juan von Ushuaia zu einer Routinefahrt vor der Küste Patagoniens auf. Das Schiff mit einer 44-köpfigen Mannschaft an Bord, darunter der erste weibliche U-Boot-Offizier Südamerikas, meldete sich zuletzt am 15. November 2017 von einer Seeposition 240 nautische Meilen vor der Küste. Hierbei meldete es ein Auftauchen aufgrund eines Kurzschlusses bei der Stromversorgung. Daraufhin erhielt die Besatzung die Anweisung zur Kursänderung Richtung Heimatbasis Mar del Plata, wo sie am 19. November hätte eintreffen sollen. Da es sich nicht wie vorgeschrieben innerhalb von 48 Stunden erneut gemeldet hatte, stuften die argentinischen Streitkräfte das Schiff am 17. November 2017 als vermisst ein und begannen eine Suchaktion, die durch schlechte Sicht- und Wetterverhältnisse im fraglichen Seegebiet erschwert wird. Im Falle eines erzwungenen Tauchens hat das Boot eine Woche bis zu zehn Tage eine Sauerstoffversorgung, sagte ein Wissenschaftler des Griffith Asia Institute der Griffith University dem amerikanischen Fernsehsender CNN. Drei Schiffe mit Radar-Sonden liefen aus und verfolgten die Strecke, die ARA San Juan gefahren sein sollte. Mehr als ein Dutzend Flugzeuge und Schiffe der argentinischen Streitkräfte, unterstützt durch Einheiten aus Chile und Brasilien, beteiligen sich an der Suche. Diese wird zudem durch eine Lockheed P-3 Orion der NASA und eine Boeing P-8 Poseidon der US-Marine unterstützt. Später schickte auch das Vereinigte Königreich den Eisbrecher HMS Protector und eine auf den Falklandinseln stationierte Lockheed C-130 Hercules zur Suche. Dies sorgte für eine gewisse Aufmerksamkeit, da Argentinien und das Vereinigte Königreich beide die Falklandinseln für sich beanspruchen.
Am 18. November 2017 wurden über einen Zeitraum von fünf Stunden sieben kurze Anrufversuche per Satellitentelefon bei verschiedenen Militärstationen registriert, von denen zunächst vermutet wurde, sie könnten von dem U-Boot stammen. Die Nutzung eines Satellitentelefons wäre ein Zeichen für ein Auftauchen des U-Boots gewesen. Die Marine versuchte zusammen mit dem Betreiber Iridium Communications Inc (IRDM.O), den Ursprungsort der Signale zurückzuverfolgen; am 20. November teilte sie mit, die Signale stammten nicht von dem Satellitentelefon des vermissten U-Boots. Seenotrettungsmittel wie Notfunkbaken wurden bislang nicht gefunden.
- Maße: 65 m × 8,30 m × 14,30 m (Länge × Breite × Höhe)
- Verdrängung: 2.115 t aufgetaucht, 2.265 t getaucht
- Antrieb: diesel-elektrisch, 1 Welle, 8.970 PS
- Geschwindigkeit: bis zu 25 Knoten
- Tauchtiefe: 300 m
- Sensoren: Sonar vermutlich modifizierte Krupp-Atlas CSU 3-4, dazu passives ESM, - - Oberflächenradar.
- Besatzung: 29 Mann
- Bewaffnung: Sechs 53,3-cm-Torpedorohre, Platz für 16 Reservetorpedos.

Argentinien - Alle U-Boote der Klasse TR-1700 der Armada Argentina Kennung Name Kiellegung Stapellauf Indienststellung Einheit Verbleib
S-41 ARA Santa Cruz 26. Juni 1981 20. September 1982 15. Oktober 1984 Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos in der Base Naval de Mar del Plata aktiv
S-42 ARA San Juan 14. April 1982 13. Juni 1983 18. November 1985 Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos in der Base Naval de Mar del Plata seit 15. November 2017 im Südatlantik verschollen[8]
S-43 ARA Santa Fe 2. Januar 1982 - - - zu 70 % fertiggestellt, Bau 1994 gestoppt, in Buenos Aires aufgelegt, Weiterbau erwogen
S-44 ARA Santiago del Estero gepl. Januar 1983 - - - zu 30 % fertiggestellt, Bau 1994 gestoppt
S-45 kein Name vergeben gepl. September 1983 - - nicht begonnen, geliefertes Material für U-Boot-Simulator im Marinestützpunkt Mar del Plata verwendet

S-46 kein Name vergeben - - - - nicht begonnen, geliefertes Material als Ersatzteilreserve verwendet
Land Argentinien Argentinien
Schiffsart U-Boot
Bauwerft Nordseewerke, Emden
Bauzeitraum 1981 bis 1994
Stapellauf des Typschiffes 20. September 1982
Gebaute Einheiten 2 fertiggestellt,
2 Bau abgebrochen
Dienstzeit Seit 1984
Schiffsmaße und Besatzung
65 m (Lüa)
Breite 8,3 m
Verdrängung aufgetaucht: 2.115 ts
getaucht 2.265 ts
Besatzung 25 Mann
Maschine 4 × MTU-Dieselmotor
1 × Siemens-Elektromotor
Propeller 1
Einsatzdaten U-Boot
Aktionsradius 14000 sm
Einsatzdauer 30 Tage
Tauchtiefe, max. 300 m
25 kn (46 km/h)
15 kn (28 km/h)
  • 6 Torpedorohre 533 mm (22 Torpedos SST-4 (AEG))
  • Radar Thompson CSF Calypso
  • Sonar Atlas Elektronik CSU 3/4
  • Sonar Thompson Sintra DUUX-5
above: MedRes! "San Juan"  photo by: Reuters  source:
Az argentin haditengerészet eltűnt tengeralattjárója 1985 óta áll hadrendben a dél-amerikai országban.
Nyugat-Németországban gyártotta 1983-ban a Nordseewerke Emden (NSWE).
A TR-1700-as osztályú dízel-elektromos tengeralattjáró
  • 2100 tonnás, 66 méter hosszú, legnagyobb szélessége 8 méter.
  • Fegyverzete 22 darab, 533 milliméteres torpedó. 
  • Üzemanyaga 30 napra elég, hatótávolsága 22 ezer kilométer.
Nagyobb programnak indult a beszerzés a '80-as években, de a típusból végül csak kettőt vásárolt Argentína.
2008 és 2013 között felújították a San Juant, mivel úgy döntöttek, gazdasági okokból a tervezettnél tovább tartják hadrendben az idén 34 éves tengeralattjárót: további 30 évre.   source:
above: NoHigher! TR-1700  source:   below:  source:
Es. text: La TR-1700 es una serie de submarinos de propulsión convencional, construidos en Thyssen Nordseewerke, Emden, Alemania. Dos unidades fueron entregadas a la Armada Argentina que los asignó a su Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos (COFS) y su puerto de amarre es la Base Naval de Mar del Plata.
Historia: Argentina inició a principios de los años 70 un ambicioso programa de reequipamiento naval, que incluía disponer de hasta 8 submarinos. En 1974 ensambló en Tandanor dos submarinos Type 209 (llamados A.R.A. Salta (S-31) y ARA San Luis (S-32)), de origen alemán y contrató, mediante el Programa de Submarinos, avalado por los decretos del PEN N° 768 del 5 de septiembre de 1973, N° 956 del 28 de marzo de 1974 y N° 336 del 14 de febrero de 1978, al astillero Thyssen Nordseewerke para completar una serie de seis submarinos TR-1700 de los cuales 4 deberían ser construidos íntegramente en Argentina. Para ello construyó el Astillero Ministro Domecq García, mientras en Alemania se construirían las dos primeras unidades de la serie. El Astillero se situó en la Costanera Sur, y comparte con Tandanor un completo Syncrolift que es utilizado para poder efectuar trabajos sobre los cascos de los buques.
Los vaivenes de la economía y política Argentina, afectaron al astillero, que nunca pudo completar las cuatro unidades, a pesar de que la primera de ellas se encuentra con un importante grado de avance. Incluso durante el gobierno de Carlos Saul Menem se dispuso el cierre de dichas instalaciones y hubo intenciones de transformar el complejo en un centro comercial. En 2004 se reinauguró el Astillero y en sus instalaciones se reparó al submarino Type 209 ARA Salta (S-31). El 17 de agosto de 2007 ingresó a sus gradas, el Submarino TR-1700 ARA San Juan (S-42) para una reparación de media vida, que incluyó el cambio de los 960 elementos de sus baterías, incluyendo corte de casco y el cambio de su periscopio. La misma finalizó 6 de febrero de 2014.
Características técnicas:
Propulsión: Su sistema de propulsión es diésel-eléctrico, con 960 elementos de baterías de plomo-ácido. La energía de éstas baterías es provista a un motor eléctrico de propulsión de cuatro armaduras y 6400 kW de potencia que transmite su movimiento a la línea de eje y por consiguiente a la hélice. Para la carga de baterías cuenta con 4 motores diésel MTU de 16 cilindros en V y 1200 kW de potencia, que mueven a su vez 4 alternadores de 4000 Amperes
Unidades de la clase: Los submarinos de la Armada Argentina que componen la clase "Santa Cruz" son:
Banderas: Bandera de Argentina
Astillero: Thyssen Nordseewerke (Emden, Alemania)
Clase: TR-1700
Tipo: Submarino de ataque
Autorizado: 5 de septiembre de 1974
Botado 28 de junio de 1983
Asignado: 18 de noviembre de 1985
Destino: En servicio en el Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos de la Armada Argentina Actualmente desaparecido en acción
Características generales:
Desplazamiento: 2140 t
Desplazamiento en inmersión: 2336 t
Eslora: 65,93 m
Manga: 8,36 m
Calado: 7,34 m (con carga completa)
Sensores: Sonar activo-pasivo CSI3-4
                              Sonar secundario pasivo PSU-12
                              Telémetro acústico pasivo DUUX 5
                              Analizador de espectros acústicos
                              Periscópios de ataque y observación Kollmorgen
                              Radar de navegación Thompson
Armamento: 6 tubos lanzatorpedos con hasta 24 torpedos Telefunken SST-4 modificados
                              Puede sembrar minas
Propulsión: 960 elementos de baterías
                              1 motor eléctrico de 6400 kW
                              1 hélice
                              4 motores diésel MTU de 16 cilindros en V y 1200 kW
                              4 alternadores de 4000 Amperios
Velocidad: 15 nudos
Velocidad en inmersión: 25 nudos
Tripulación: 8 oficiales y 29 suboficiales
[editar datos en Wikidata]
above: NoHigher! TR1700  by: Perfil Adrian Duenas
above: HiRes! TR-1700 Preveze class layout of decks   below: NoHigher! Cutaway 
En. text: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (often abbreviated HDW) is a German shipbuilding company, headquartered in Kiel. It is part of the ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) group, owned by ThyssenKrupp. The Howaldtswerke shipyard was founded in Kiel in 1838 and merged with Hamburg-based Deutsche Werft to form Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) in 1968. The company's shipyard was formerly used by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft until the end of World War II.  ...
FounderAugust Howaldt and Johann Schweffel
ProductsPassenger ships
Cargo ships
Number of employees
ParentThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
De. text: Die Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW) in Kiel wurde Ende 2012 in ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems GmbH (TKMS) umbenannt. Die Unternehmensgeschichte der größten deutschen Werft reicht bis zur Gründung einer Eisengießerei und Dampfkessel­bauanstalt im Jahr 1838 zurück.  ... 

Es. text: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (frecuentemente abrevidada como HDW) es una compañía construtora de barcos y submarinos de Alemania, con oficinas centrales en Kiel. En el año 2009 fue el más grande astillero en Alemania y cuenta con más de 2.400 empleados. Ha sido parte de ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems propiedad de ThyssenKrupp, desde el año 2005. El nombre viene desde la fusión en el año 1968 con la empresa Deutsche Werft basada en Hamburgo.  ...
IndustriaConstrucción de barcos y submarinos
Estatus legalGesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
Fundador(es)August Howaldt
Werftstr. 112-114
Área de operaciónMundial
ProductosNaves de carga, de pasajeros y militares
MatrizThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
Coordenadas54°19′08″N 10°09′20″E
[editar datos en Wikidata]
Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft
Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft designs, engineers, and constructs non-nuclear submarines.
Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
Categories: Shipping
Founded Date: 1838
Operating Status: Active
Funding Status: M&A
Number of Employees: 1001-5000
Company Type: For Profit
Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft designs, engineers, and constructs non-nuclear submarines.
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: about FRG "WehrTechnik" review: HDW - Howaldtswerke - Deutsche Werft Aktiengesellschaft Hamburg und Kiel
HDW: The future lies ahead
More than 2,400 employees in Kiel ensure that HDW continues to stand for state-of-the-art technologies and production methods to meet the highest demands in shipbuilding. The shipyard is the competence centre for construction of the world's most modern non-nuclear submarines and leader in the installation of fully matured fuel cell propulsion systems. In the field of high class non-military shipbuilding, HDW also exceled with experienced construction work and attention to detail.
Since January 2005 HDW has formed part of the ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) shipyard alliance.

Submarines: Each a class of its own – the successful submarines
Virtually no shipyard the world over has more experience in the design and construction of non-nuclear submarines than ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems with its Operating Unit Submarines (Kiel). The Operating Unit is a partner of the German Navy and has also delivered submarines for coastal and blue water deployment to the navies of 19 other countries.
Decades of experience as well as continuously introduced innovative ideas and concepts are the basis for the success of the submarine shipyard based in Kiel. Like the HDW Class 209, which can be found in every ocean in the world. No other class of submarine has been built more often since World War II. Now the HDW Class 212A and 214 submarines have entered new dimensions.
Ever since there have been submarines, the goal has been to extend their diving time. With air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems, this has become possible for non-nuclear boats. These propulsion systems increase the underwater range significantly and thus reduce the risk of discovery. In Kiel an air-independent propulsion system has been simultaneously developed and deployed - the HDW fuel cell plant. Besides new submarines, serving boats can also be retrofitted with this system.
HDW Class 212A and 214 submarines were the first in the world to undertake extra long dives independent of external air sources, equipped with a high-performance fuel cell propulsion system.

Both boat classes have set new standards in the areas of:
weapons control,
external communication,
crew comfort,

The company unites submarine competence from basic research and development to design, manufacture, outfitting, testing and "in-service-support". Everything from ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems comes at first hand.  ...

aboveNoHigher! HDW - Howaldatswerke-Deutsche-Werft.AG's boats
The HDW Class 209/1400mod submarine is the most recent version of the HDW Class 209 "family" in a line of 63 boats contracted with 14 customer navies.
Thanks to the large number of orders, every contract profited from the latest results of Research & Development. Improvements were tested during sea trials and then incorporated without delay into the next project.
Like all its predecessors, HDW Class 209/1400mod is a compact and reliable submarine featuring most recent technology, high combat strength, extraordinary battery payload and low signatures. Its comprehensive mission profiles include not only maritime defence and conflict prevention, but also surveillance and intelligence gathering tasks. It is also ideally suited for Special Forces operation missions. In order to increase their indiscretion rate, HDW Class 209 boats may be equipped with a HDW fuel cell plug-in section for air-independent submarine propulsion. Such integration can be carried out during a regular midlife modernisation and leads to a considerable increase in submerged endurance.
Technical Data:
LOA ~ 62 m
Pressure hull ø ~ 6.2 m
Surface displ. ~ 1,450 t
Height incl. sail ~ 12.5 m
Weapon tubes 8
Crew 30

aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: about: "WehrTechnik": HDW U-212 
above: NoHigher! Poster: Submarines & U-Boats
above: NoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - vár) Kapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: about DDR - NVA - National Volksarmee's magazine "Armee Rundschau" 1975. "AR - Waffensammlung" - "Army Review" - szemle: Sowietische U-Boot technik
above: NoHigher! Own submarine "Golf" from 1967. kit was by: Coopexim Warsawa & Hu. TRIÁL
above: NoHigher! German navy submarines  by: darthpandanl  via:
above: HiRes! DW vs. NT submarines by: zagoreni-010  via:
above: NoHigher! 'Lego' TR1700  by: L4UTY ZERO
En. text: Fifth Generation subs: As part of a major fleet renovation plan which included the MEKO frigates classes, a contract was signed in 1977 with West Germany's Nordseewerke for six TR-1700-class submarines, the last four of them to be built in Argentina. The Argentine Navy sponsored the development of the CAREM nuclear reactor to be installed on these submarines, but for political reasons the whole program was cancelled and only the two German units were delivered. These ships are the largest submarines built in Germany since World War II and are among the fastest diesel-electric submarines in the world.
ARA Santa Cruz (S-41)
ARA San Juan (S-42) (Missing, presumed lost on Wednesday 14, November 2017)

Es. text:  Clase TR-1700 Los submarinos TR-1700 fueron entregados en las siguientes fechas:
El ARA Santa Cruz (S-41), el 18 de octubre de 1983, el ARA San Juan (S-42) el 18 de noviembre de 1985. Como armamento estos buques cuentan con seis tubos lanzatorpedos, ubicados en la sección de proa y pueden lanzar dos clases de torpedos:
a) El SST-4 torpedo antisuperficie del tipo “Swim out” (el torpedo no necesita se expulsado por aire sino que abandona el tubo por sus propios medios) es filoguiado con un alcance de 28 km y dos velocidades graduables (llega hasta 34 nudos).
b) el Mk 37 que es antisubmarino y antiescolta, es programable y cuenta con un alcance de 8 km desarrollando una velocidad de hasta 25 nudos (que en la actualidad no se encuentra disponible en la Armada Argentina). Además cuentan con dispositivos para el sembrado de minas. La estiba a bordo es de 6 torpedos en los tubos y 16 en los calzos, en los que se pueden acomodar en cada uno: 1 torpedo SST-4 o 2 Mk 37. Para minar pueden transportar 80 minas del tipo AEG UGM 75-2, 60 AEG UGM 75-2 ó 40 AEG UMM 75-1.
El ARA San Juan (S-42) participó entre marzo y junio de 1992, en la “Fase Cero del UNITAS XXXIII” junto con naves de la US Navy en aguas delMar Caribe utilizando como base de apoyo a la Base Naval de Roosevelt Roads en Puerto Rico. Entre febrero y junio de 1994 participó del operativo “George Washington-FLEETEX 92/2” también junto a buques de la marina norteamericana, en aguas del Atlántico Norte cercanas a la Base Naval de Norfolk. El ARA Santa Cruz (S-41) participó de los festejos del 75° Aniversario de la Fuerza de Submarinos de la Marina de Guerra del Perú, acontecidos en el año 1986 y en el trayecto a esa República hermana, navegó 8.063 millas sumergido.
above: NoHigher! TR1700  photo by: Reuters/Handout: Armada Argentina   Fotó: MTI/EPA/Argentin haditengerészet     
The Argentine military submarine ARA San Juan and crew are seen leaving the port of Buenos Aires, Argentina June 2, 2014. Picture taken on June 2, 2014.  source: Google/REUTERS
below: MedRes! S.J. close to coast of MdP
above: MedRes! Port of MdP source: Armada de la República
above: NoHigher! A.R.A. - Armada Republic Argentina TR-1700 submarine ARA Santa Cruz (S-41) at Base Naval Mar del Plata.   source: Wikipedia
Es. text: La Armada de la República Argentina (A.R.A.) o simplemente Armada Argentina es la rama naval de las Fuerzas Armadas Argentinas, encargada de la defensa nacional del Mar Argentino.2​ Su corazón operativo es la Base Naval Puerto Belgrano. Históricamente tuvo un rol fundamental en la Guerra de Independencia de la Argentina, la Guerra del Brasil y la Guerra de las Malvinas. Actualmente además de desempeñarse en su misión principal participa activamente en las Campañas antárticas de Argentina y misiones de paz bajo mandato de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU).  ...
El Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos (COFS), con asiento en la Base Naval de Mar del Plata es parte esencial del Poder Naval Integrado de la Armada Argentina. Está integrado por los submarinos ARA Salta (S-31), ARA Santa Cruz (S-41) y ARA San Juan (S-42) y la Agrupación de Buzos   ...

En. text:The Argentine Submarine Force (Spanish: Comando de la Fuerza de Submarinos, COFS) is the submarine service branch of the Argentine Navy. Argentine submarines have traditionally been named after the provinces of the Republic whose name begins with the letter 'S'; they are home based at Mar del Plata naval base. COFS members have the same rank insignia and titles as the rest of the Navy. As of 2010, the elite group Agrupación de Buzos Tácticos is under the direct command of the submarine force; two TR-1700 and one Type 209 submarines are in service. Two small surface vessels, ARA Punta Mogotes (P-65) and ARA Luisito (Q-51), are also part of the COFS and used in the training role.
Like the rest of the Argentine armed services the force is struggling to maintain its readiness in the absence of funds for maintenance and training. All three boats have maintenance difficulties and between them spent just 19 hours submerged in 2012.
It is currently composed of three submarines: ARA Salta (S-31), ARA Santa Cruz (S-41) and ARA San Juan (S-42).  ...  
Es. text: Tácticos.Las Fuerzas Armadas Argentinas están compuestas por tres ramas: el Ejército Argentino (EA), la Armada Argentina (ARA)y la Fuerza Aérea Argentina (FAA). Por disposición y coordinación del Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas Argentinas (EMCFFAA), son las encargadas de la defensa nacional de la República Argentina a través de sus medios correspondientes.  ...
above: MedRes! poster
above: MedRes Falkland War 1982. Opposit Naval - Submarine Forces - Szembenálló Erők
Falklands War:

above: NoHigher!    belowHiRes! A.R.A.  San Juan im Mai 2017  source: Wikipedia
above: MedRes! Similar 'swedish Gotland' class Attack Sub's cutaway drawing key
above: MedRes! RCN-Royal Canadian Navy, British 'Upholder' class "Victoria" D.E. Atk. sub.
above: HiRes! Royal Navy H.M.S. 'Astute' class cutaway drawing key - röntgenrajz
above: NEW! NoHigher! 海上自衛隊の最新鋭潜水艦「そうりゅう」型の4番艦「けんりゅう」ss-02bb5  source:
aboveMedRes! Cutaway graphic about D.E. Attack-Delivery U-Boat
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: about: FRG 'WehrTechnik'?: Cutaways: La Praya
above: HiRes! Cutaway model ZWV 2004
above: MedRes! Juci'bácsi scan coll.: Hu.Mil.: "Igaz Szó"-."True Word/Speech" early 1980's  GFR Navy U-Boot - Submarine - NSzK tengeralattjáró

below: Deutsche U-Boot Technic: HDW Typs-209 "Kobben" klasse

above: NoHigher! 'Kobben' class - Clase-209 "Ara Salta" S-32
En. text: Fourth Generation subs: In 1969 a contract was signed in West Germany for two Type 209 submarines. The ships were of the 56 metres/1100 ton sub-type; they were built in parts by Howaldtswerke at Kiel and delivered to Tandanor shipyard in Buenos Aires where final assembly was completed in 1973. The vessels were commissioned in 1974, but only San Luis (S-32) was in service during the 1982 Falklands War. She reported two encounters with Royal Navy ships but without scoring hits due to problems with her torpedo's firing system. The threat posed by the San Luis, however, forced the Royal Navy to give up recovery efforts of two Sea King helicopters which had ditched at sea on 12 May and 18 May 1982 respectively. Both aircraft were eventually destroyed by naval gunfire. She also tied up a considerable number of British naval assets deployed to counter her presence. There was an attempt to deploy the Salta to the Falklands area at the end of May, but excessive noise and problems with the torpedo firing system similar to those found on San Luis prevented her operational use. San Luis was struck from the Navy in 1997 after an incomplete overhaul, whilst Salta (S-31) was still in service as of 2017.
- ARA Salta (S-31)
- ARA San Luis (S-32)

Es. text: Formada por dos unidades, el ARA Salta (S-31) y el ARA San Luis (S-32) que se incorporaron en el año 1974. Estos tienen como armamento, 8 tubos lanzatorpedos de 21´´ en proa y transporta torpedos SST-4 filoguiados, Mk 37 Honeywell AS/Mk 48 y minas. Están tripulados por 36 hombres. En el año 1975 el S-32 cumplió por primera vez en la Armada una inmersión de 50 días completos donde desarrollo una patrulla, en la que llegó a Puerto Argentino (Islas Malvinas). En la Guerra de Malvinas el ARA San Luis (S-32), también tuvo como el S-21 una destacada acción, donde llegó a disparar 2 torpedos SST-4 y un Mk-37. Navegó durante 39 días en patrulla y 864 horas permaneció sumergido (equivalente a 36 días) en medio de un ambiente hostil, enfrentándose a una fuerza antisubmarina de la OTAN, la que no pudo detectarlo efectivamente. El S-31 no se encontraba en operaciones ya que tenía ruidos en su navegación, lo que hacía imposible su utilización en combate. El Salta luego de pasar por una modernización de motores, baterías y sistemas. en la década del 90 se encuentra en operaciones y a la fecha se encuentra amarrado en su apostadero en la Base Naval de Mar del Plata. El S-32 pasó a condición de reserva en 1985 y el 23 de abril de 1997 se lo declaró en desuso por la Armada.5​ Se encuentra resguardado en las instalaciones del Astillero Domecq García.  ...
 above. NoHigher In dry dock
above: HiRes! Submarinos Klasse U-209 de la Armada Nacional de Colombia 
TOLEDO escribióHola ALEXC, en esta foto se fe como las laminas de al frente del sub están unpoco mas arrugadas por así decirlo y las de mas atras en perfectas condiciones.
Mira el tamaño original de la foto los detalles y me comentas.
No creo que se hayan cambiando Toledo y lo que pasa es que las laminas utilizadas para construir el centro del casco son mas largas que las que se utilizan para construir la parte de la Popa del Submarino por eso se ven mas lisas,....te voy a dejar este documental sobre la forma como se construye un submarino en este caso el USS VIRGINIA, por favor observa desde el minuto: 20:10 para que observes el largor de las laminas utilizadas para construir el centro del casco y la forma como las doblan:  ...
 above: HiRes! Juci'bacsi's scan collect from 1984.: De. text: GFR 'Hobby Magazine der Technik' 17.1.1983.: Erfolgskurs unter Wasser Type 209 (207) 'Kobben' klasse  All pics Courtesy FREE below Four: also HiRes!

above: Left: Attitude indicator 'Inclinometer' and Map/Chart course line track  Right: Attack periscope
above: NoHigher! Magnification - MacrophotoJuci'Bacsi's collect, ORWO Slide/Dia repro-photo by 'Praktica' F.X 2 small-film camera with Pentacon mast in late 1983.
above: NoHigher! It from No Hobby Magazine! Inclinometer - Dőlésmérő  source:
aboveNoHigherIt from No Hobby Magazine! Spedo move-signal - menetsebességjelző
above: HiRes! type-205 'Kobben's 3D Profile cutaway drawing key/Longitudinal cross section  - Hosszmetszet  also Courtesy FREE!
above: MedRes! Comparison the Type-206
above Three: HiRes! De. text: Article from HMdT 1983. (Hobby Magazine End!)  below: Pinterest.

above: NoHigher! Top Two: MedRes! Bundesarchiv: German Navy - Deutsche Marine: Type 205 class Submarine
The Type 205 was a class of diesel-electric German hunter-killer U-boat submarines. They were single-hull vessels optimized for the use in the shallow Baltic Sea. The Type 205 is a direct evolution of the Type 201 class with lengthened hull, new machinery and sensors. The biggest difference though is that ST-52 steel is used for the pressure hull since the Type 201's non-magnetic steel proved to be problematic. Type 206, the follow-on class, finally succeeded with non-magnetic steel hulls.

U-1 and U-2 were originally built as Type 201 submarines with pressure hulls made of non-magnetic steel, but were rebuilt as Type 205 with new pressure hulls out of normal steel after corrosion problems and small cracks were detected.
U-1 was given back to Nordseewerke and was used to test an experimental closed-cycle diesel air-independent propulsion system before being scrapped.
U-11 was transformed to a Type 205A double-hulled boat (the outer hull filled with polystyrene foam to make it unsinkable) and used as torpedo target.
U-12 was used for sonar trials as Type 205B.
All units were built by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW), Kiel, Germany.

Displacement: 450 tons (surfaced) / 500 tons (submerged)
Length: 43,9 meters
Beam: 4,6 meters
Draft: 4,3 meters
Speed: 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced / 17 knots (31 km/h) submerged
2 x Mercedes-Benz 4-stroke V12 diesel engines (2 x 600 hp) each coupled with a BBC generator
1 x electric motor (1300 hp)
1 shaft / 1 propeller
Range: 4200 NM (7800 km) at 5 knots (9 km/h) surfaced / 228 NM (422 km) at 4 knots (7 km/h) submerged
Crew: 22
Armament: 8 x 533mm torpedo tubes for torpedoes or naval mines
above: MedRes! U9? S 196 in port of ...   source:
above: NoHigher Juci'bacsi's collect: Hu. edition:  Tolnay-Szentesi: "Az erő mítosza" 'Zrínyi' Katonai Kiadó -Budapest- 1984. - "Myth of the Power" 'Zrínyi' Military Publisher
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2             
 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: about: FRG 'WehrTechnik': U 29 "Kiel"
above: NoHigher! Former Own reprophotocamera: DDR made '#Praktica" F.X 2 small film mirror-shaft camera with 'Carl Zeiss - Jena' "#Tessar" objective
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Sony-Ericcson' "Yari" "halfsmart" handy photo 2017.11.14.15:30  Budapest, Buda-castle - ~-i vár:  Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budaer-castle - várKapisztrán -tér 4-6. 
De. text: Die U-Boot Klasse 207 ist eine Klasse von diesel-elektrischen U-Booten, die bei den Nordseewerken in Emden für die norwegische Marine gebaut und von dieser unter dem Namen Kobben-Klasse eingesetzt wurden. Die Klasse 207 ist eine speziell auf die Anforderungen der norwegischen Marine abgestimmte Weiterentwicklung der Klasse 205. Ein Teil der Boote befindet sich in Polen im Dienst, Dänemark hat seine U-Boot-Flotte inzwischen ersatzlos aufgelöst.  ... Wikipedia
Es. text: Los submarinos de la Clase Kobben o Tipo 207 son una versión altamente modificada de los submarinos de la Clase Tipo 205, que fueron especialmente modificados a petición de su usuario, la Real Armada de Noruega.
Pl. text: Okręty podwodne typu 207 – wariant okrętów podwodnych typu 205, zbudowanych w RFN dla marynarki Norwegii, gdzie zostały oznaczone jako typ Kobben. Zbudowano 15 jednostek, które służyły w marynarce norweskiej w latach 1964-2003. Trzy z nich używane były w latach 1989-2004 przez Danię jako typ Tumleren, a cztery wycofane z użytku we flocie norweskiej od 2002 służą w Marynarce Wojennej RP.  ...
 above: NoHigher! Types-205 ('Kobben' klasse?)  by:   below: MedRes! Type-207('Kobben' classe) Danish NAVY Submarine  source:

above: HiRes! U11 Steering contols yokes: Left: Horizontal-Course - Seitrenruder & Repeater gyro-compass   Right: Vertical-Depth: Forward & Rear flaps & Tiefenmesser     below: NoHigher! Site

above Four: MedRes! U-9 Type-205 handling controls' sites  Photos: Pilot Micha  source: Fiveprime/    below: NoHigher! A.Lange & Sohne Glashutte Germany Wehrmacht

MedRes! U9/U10 U-Boot Klasse Typ-205, HDW  above: Sonar sensor site   below: Torpedo rohr - tubes - Torpedóvető csövek  source: Wikipedia
above: MedRes!  maschinen raum with 'Mercedes' diesel engines  source: Fiveprime/
above: MedRes! U96 Das Boot Uhr Maschinentelegraph SUPERIOR SUBMARINE RARITY WATCH and similar memorial Stb. watch

above: Left: MedRes!  U9  source:  'Speyer'  Right: HiRes! U9  source:
above: MedRes! 'Speyer' Museum: U9 Entry hatch - beszálló nyílás  source:
above: HiRes! In 'Speyer' museum: U-9 205 class was built by the Kieler Howaldtswerke 1967.  source: pinterest
above: NoHigher! Deutsche Marine U10  type-205 Entry door of tower
above: NoHigher! Pl. text: Okręt podwodny ORP 'Kondor' (typu Koben, projektu 207).  source: Wiki
above: NoHigher! Type 207 SSK-297 "Kondor" Polish Navy mod. Photo by: Antonio Galán Cees  source:
above: HiRes! HNoMs Utstein, now a museum ship
En. text: The Kobben class (also known as Type 207) is a customized version of the German Type 205 submarine. Fifteen vessels of this class were built for use by the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1960s. The class later saw service with Denmark and Poland. The boats have since been withdrawn from service in the Norwegian and Danish Navy. The Polish Navy still operates four Kobben-class submarines, as of 2016.
HistoryAlong with the rest of the Royal Norwegian Navy, the submarine fleet was to be modernized according to the Fleet plan of 1960. After the war, Norway needed a navy more suited for coastal operations rather than large, seagoing vessels. This made the choice of a new type of submarines rather slim, not many NATO submarines being suited for this type of operations. A German Type 201 submarine was lent to the Royal Norwegian Navy for evaluation and adaptation. The result was the Type 207, of which 15 vessels were delivered to Norway in the period 1964 – 67. All Kobben-class submarines were built by Rheinstahl Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden. Between 1985 – 93, six boats were lengthened by 2 m (6 ft 7 in) and modernized, most notably with new sonar equipment. 
During that period, four others were sold to the Royal Danish Navy (known there as the Tumleren class), three operational (modernized) and one for spare parts. HDMS Sælen served in the 2003 invasion of Iraq from May 2002 until June 2003. 
In 2001, the Kobben class was completely phased out in Norwegian service, replaced by the newer Ula class. Five modernized vessels were given to the Polish Navy, four as operational units and one for spare parts. Before they were transferred, the Polish crews were trained and the boats were overhauled. 
During 2004, all of the operational Danish boats (Tumleren, Sælen and Springeren) were decommissioned. They were mothballed as of 2005, waiting to be scrapped or handed over to another nation.
Kobben class — significant dates Pennant Name Commissioned Notes 
S-315 Kaura 1965 Transferred to Denmark in 1991 for spare parts 
S-316 Kinn 8 April 1964 Scuttled in Bjørnafjord in 1990 
S-317 Kya 15 June 1964 Transferred to Denmark in 1991 as the HDMS Springeren 
S-318 Kobben 15 August 1964 Transferred to Poland in 2002 for spare parts and as of 17 December 2011 moved to Maritime Academy in Gdynia (Akademia Marynarki Wojennej) for crew training.
S-319 Kunna 29 October 1964 Transferred to Poland in 2003 as ORP Kondor 
S-300 Ula 1965 Renamed Kinn (S-316) in 1987, scrapped in 1998 
S-301 Utsira 1965 Scrapped in 1998 
S-302 Utstein 1965 Transferred to the naval museum in Horten in 1998 as a museum ship
S-303 Utvær 1965 Transferred to Denmark in 1989 as HDMS Tumleren (S322) 
S-304 Uthaug 1965 Transferred to Denmark in 1990 as HDMS Sælen (S323), now a museum ship 
S-305 Sklinna 1966 Reconditioned in 1989, scrapped in 2001 
S-306 Skolpen 1966 Transferred to Poland in 2002 as ORP Sęp
S-307 Stadt 1966 Scrapped in 1989 
S-308 Stord 1967 Transferred to Poland in 2002 as ORP Sokół
S-309 Svenner 1967 Transferred to Poland in 2003 as ORP Bielik
  1. Jane Edwards (30 June 2016). "Poland, Germany to Form Joint Submarine Command". Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  2. Andrew Toppan, ed. (24 March 2002). "World Navies Today: Poland". Retrieved 23 August 2016.
(in Norwegian) Marinemuseet, the Norwegian naval museum   ...
Sites with information about the Kobben class.
Nordseewerke - manufacturer's website
Polish Navy - with Polish commission dates, pictures and information
Danish Naval History - information about Danish use (1989–2004)

above: NoHigher! Kobben's cross sections drawings
above: HiRes! Polish Navy: Die "Bielik" - Lengyel Haditengerészet  source: Wikipedia
above: NoHigher! ORP Bielik in service with the Polish Navy (source: Polish MoD).  source: Wikipedia - 
External links Polish military - Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej / Polish Ministry of Defence

above: NoHigher! Type 209/1400 U-Boot - U-Boat/Submarine - Tengeralattjáró  source:

above: NoHigher! Elie Golf's periscope in School - Iskolai periszkóp
above: NoHigher! U-Boat Periscope: gine-1  by: Cyber Heritage
periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position.
In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle. This form of periscope, with the addition of two simple lenses, served for observation purposes in the trenches during World War I. Military personnel also use periscopes in some gun turretsand in armoured vehicles.
More complex periscopes, using prisms and/or advanced fiber optics instead of mirrors, and providing magnification, operate on submarines and in various fields of science. The overall design of the classical submarine periscope is very simple: two telescopes pointed into each other. If the two telescopes have different individual magnification, the difference between them causes an overall magnification or reduction.

Left: Principle of the periscope. The periscope on the left uses mirrors whereas the right uses prisms.
a Mirrors
b Prisms
c Observer's eye
Right: Principle of the lens periscope. The two periscopes differ in the way they erect the image. The left one uses an erecting prism whereas the right uses an erecting lens and a second image plane.
a Objective lens
b Field lens
c Image erecting lens
d Ocular lens
e Lens of the observer's eye
f Right-angled prism
g Image-erecting prism

aboveMedRes! Left: Germany 'Zeiss' U-Boat Periscope 1943  source: wikipedia  Right: HiRes! U534
 above & below: HiRes! USA Periscope manual: Optical arrangement and ray diagram
above: NEW! NoHigher! The graticule of the type ASR C/13 attack periscope
below: NEW! NoHigher!  'Structure of a submarine periscope ' from publication 'On-Line Intelligent Control of Submarine Periscopes' on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.  source:
Naval use:
Periscopes allow a submarine, when submerged at a relatively shallow depth, to search visually for nearby targets and threats on the surface of the water and in the air. When not in use, a submarine's periscope retracts into the hull. A submarine commander in tactical conditions must exercise discretion when using his periscope, since it creates a visible wake (and may also become detectable by radar), giving away the sub's position.
Frenchman Marie Davey built a simple, fixed naval periscope using mirrors in 1854. Thomas H. Doughty of the US Navy later invented a prismatic version for use in the American Civil War of 1861–65.
Submarines adopted periscopes early. Captain Arthur Krebs adapted two on the experimental French submarine Gymnote in 1888 and 1889. The Spanish inventor Isaac Peral equipped his submarine Peral (developed in 1886 but launched on September 8, 1888) with a fixed, non-retractable periscope that used a combination of prisms to relay the image to the submariner. (Peral also developed a primitive gyroscope for submarine navigation and pioneered the ability to fire live torpedoes while submerged.)
The invention of the collapsible periscope for use in submarine warfare is usually credited [by w to Simon Lake in 1902. Lake called his device the omniscope or skalomniscope. There is also a report that an Italian, Triulzi, demonstrated such a device in 1901, calling it a cleptoscope.

As of 2009 modern submarine periscopes incorporate lenses for magnification and function as telescopes. They typically employ prisms and total internal reflection instead of mirrors, because prisms, which do not require coatings on the reflecting surface, are much more rugged than mirrors. They may have additional optical capabilities such as range-finding and targeting. The mechanical systems of submarine periscopes typically use hydraulics and need to be quite sturdy to withstand the drag through water. The periscope chassis may also support a radio or radar antenna.

Submarines traditionally had two periscopes; a navigation or observation periscope and a targeting, or commander's, periscope. Navies originally mounted these periscopes in the conning tower, one forward of the other in the narrow hulls of diesel-electric submarines. In the much wider hulls of recent US Navy submarines the two operate side-by-side. The observation scope, used to scan the sea surface and sky, typically had a wide field of view and no magnification or low-power magnification. The targeting or "attack" periscope, by comparison, had a narrower field of view and higher magnification. In World War II and earlier submarines it was the only means of gathering target data to accurately fire a torpedo, since sonar was not yet sufficiently advanced for this purpose (ranging with sonar required emission of an electronic "ping" that gave away the location of the submarine) and most torpedoes were unguided.

21st-century submarines do not necessarily have periscopes. The United States Navy's Virginia-class submarines and the Royal Navy's Astute class submarines instead use photonics masts, pioneered by the Royal Navy's HMS Trenchant, which lift an electronic imaging sensor-set above the water. Signals from the sensor-set travel electronically to workstations in the submarine's control center. While the cables carrying the signal must penetrate the submarine's hull, they use a much smaller and more easily sealed—and therefore less expensive and safer—hull opening than those required by periscopes. Eliminating the telescoping tube running through the conning tower also allows greater freedom in designing the pressure hull and in placing internal equipment.  ...  by

 NEW! Upper: HiRes! above & belowNoHigher! #U-Boot #Type-VIIC/41 KNM Kya (ex-U-926) #Kriegsmarine

Originally posted by zhuravlik View Post
So, basically, you are saying that Kya was never received her sail? But this contraddicts Eberhard Rossler: "Using the reshaped bridge style of the Walter U-boats, instead of the usual VIIC bridge (minus "wintergarden", the AA platform behind the bridge, and armament), only an insignificant increase in speed (38 revolutions per knot as opposed to 40 revolutions per knot) resulted, but the depth keeping properties were greatly improved".
The U-Boat, page 160
And that means the boat was modified and tested.
I only know that the picture of the boat U 926 at the surrender was a standard Term-1 tower with the 2cm flak 38 and winter garden. The pictures taken of the Kya in 1960 had the original Term without the gun mount. Somewhere, I have seen a photo of the tower with the platform and dish removed. and the gyros compas housing off. This tower had two port holes forward in the center like the 1959 drawing and it had a closed in after section and an overhead. It had the obs scope in the cowling front, and attack scope aft in the original type VII positions. If the attack scope was where it is in the 59 drawing, it would go down thru the outside of the main controll room's wtc. If not then too close to the bulkhead for a man to get between to look aft. The scope's well for it, would go into the fuel bunker below the radio room deck, also. Old Photographs from the Royal Norwegan Navy would be wonderful. You would think if it was successful they wouldnt have converted it back and put in.
aboveLeftNoHigher!   Right: HiRes! Method of Sub-periscope  source: Wikipedia
above: MedRes! Officer at periscope in control room of a U.S. Navy submarine in World War II. The officer pictured is Captain Raymond W. Alexander, Sr. and the photo was taken in 1942.  wikipedia
Es. text: Un periscopio (etim. del griego peri- y -scopio, περισκοπεῖν, «mirar en torno») es un instrumento para la observación desde una posición oculta.
En su forma sencilla es un tubo con un juego de espejos en los extremos, paralelos y en un ángulo de 45º respecto a la línea que los une. Se puede usar para ver sobre la cabeza de la gente en una multitud. Esta forma de periscopio, con la adición de simples lentes, fue usado para propósitos de observación en trincheras durante la Primera Guerra Mundial.
Los periscopios más complejos usan prismas en vez de espejos, y disponen de aumentos, como los usados en los submarinos.  ...

Hu. text: A periszkóp olyan optikai eszköz, amelynek segítségével láthatóvá válik a megfigyelőtől valamilyen szemmagasság fölé, vagy alá nyúló akadály által eltakart tárgy.  ...  wiki/Periskop
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X. 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's own Soviet military book. (Where is it?) copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: Военно-морского флота СССР / Российской Федерации Soviet VMF - Voenno Morskovo Flotta - S.U. NAVY   

above: NEWNoHigher! Soviet  M55 Aviation (Strat. bo.) & Naval dashboard clock 27 Volt - Repülő (Hadi. bo.) és Tengerészeti fedélzeti óra
aboveMedRes! Also Praktica photo about 'Wehrtechnik"? NATO sub 
above & below: NoHigher! Swedish Koenig Navy 'Gotland' classe Periscope mast
above: NoHigher! R.N. H.M.S. "Victory" Periscopes

above: NEW! NoHigher! Left: Photonic mast diagram   Right: 'Virginia' classe coning tower
NEWNoHigherabove: Infografia; mast raising equipment: 'Virginia' class Attack Subm. & Calzoni
below: photonic-mast-controlroom
...  Of the many systems and sensors on board, one of the highlights is the novel Photonics mast system. Electro-optics engineers at Kollmorgen Electro-Optical and its Italian subsidiary, Calzoni have developed the AN/BVS-1 photonics mast system, which is a non-hull penetrating electronic imaging subsystem with visible light camera, infrared camera, and electronic support measures sensors, as well as stealth features that will provide new capabilities for attack submarines. This Universal Modular Mast (UMM) has been integrated and tested with the Optronic, Communications, Satcom High Data Rate and Electronic Warfare underwater sensors. Kollmorgen Electro-Optical will provide the U.S. Navy 8 AN/BVS-1 photonics mast systems for Virginia-class fast-attack submarines under terms of a $41.2 million contract.  ...

above: NEW! NoHigher! C3i - Command & Control Communication & intelligence Control Room

above: NEW! Left: HiRes! Anti Digital Slide-Rule Disc   Right: MedRes! Virginia C3i room with Admiral
above: NEW! HiRes! Periscope & Optronic Mast Technolgy Evolution Timeline by THALES (Edited & Crop due max Res.1600px!)
In 1888, Professor Archibald Barr and Dr William Stroud, in response to a tender issued by the War Office, submitted an application for an optical range-finder patent to the Patents Office. This patent would both cement the collaboration between Barr and Stroud and, from 1917, form the core of the next 100 years of Thales’s periscope development.  ...
above: NEW! NoHigher! Twin CM10 Optronic Masts used on the English 'Astute' Class
One hundred years of unbroken supply to any customer is an incredible achievement. In this era of intense competition, it is all the more impressive when the record is also one as a sole supplier.
above: NoHigher! Photonics mast 7. April 2015
above: HiRes! USN Submarines with deployed periscope
above: NEW! NoHigher! Left: Thales CM010 Optronic mast by Barr & Stroud Glasgow cm-010, MidHensoldt SERO-400 + OMS-110   Right: The Optronic Mast System OMS 100 is an ideal solution for both new-build or retrofit naval applications.  source:
above: HiRes! A.R.A. Sub coning turret

above Two: MedRes! DM - Deutsche Marine: Submarine Officer Janine Asseln in front of her submarine U-31. This is at the Eckenförde Naval Base    below: MedRes! in German Navy, appoints first female Submarine Officer Janine Asseln. (Photo courtesy - the German Navy's magazine)

above: HiRes! Cached off thorough periscope the  US "Oliver Hazard Perry" class frigate F497
above: NoHigher! Submarine periscope
above: NEW! HiRes! U.S. Navy 111010-N ZZ999-005 Rear Adm. Bernt Grimstvedt, chief of the Royal Norwegian Navy, looks through the 'Kollmorgen' periscope of the 'Los Angeles' class submarine. source: Dimitriy Maximov pin:

above: MedRes! Turkish Navy: Savunma Ve Havacilik - Török Haditengerészet  source: Pinterest
above: HiRes! USN in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Discussion in Control Room    
above ThreeMedRes! Telescopic sytem.  Right: Unterseeboot Klasse VII
above: NEW! NoHigher1960. nuclear Navy has eyes periscope 'Kollmorgen' Northampton ma-ad  by: Terapeak
above: NEW! HiRes! U.S. Navy 100129-N-3560G-003 Officers can the horizon through periscopes aboard the attack submarine USS Santa Fe (SSN 763)  source:
above: NoHigher! R.N.: Adjusting in H.M.S. - Her Majestic Ship - Őfelsége Hadihajója-n

above: MedRes! Canadian / British 'Oberon' class periscope
The Oberon class was a ship class of 27 British-designed submarines operated by five different nations. They were designed as a direct follow-on from the Porpoise-class: physical dimensions were the same, but stronger materials were used in hull construction, and updated equipment was fitted.
The submarines were built between 1957 and 1978 by four shipyards: Cammel Laird, Chatham Dockyard, Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company and Vickers-Armstrongs . Thirteen of the submarines were operated by the Royal Navy, six by the Royal Australian Navy, three by the Brazilian Navy, three by the Royal Canadian Navy/Canadian Forces Maritime Command (plus two ex-Royal Navy boats later acquired for non-commissioned roles), and two by the Chilean Navy.
The Oberons operated during the height of the Cold War, with duties including surveillance, tracking of other ships and submarines, delivery and retrieval of special forces personnel, and serving as targets for anti-submarine training. Submarines of the class were in service until 2000. As of 2015, eight of the submarines are preserved intact as museum vessels, another three are partially preserved (with some exterior portions of the submarine on display), and one is in private ownership and awaiting conversion for display. The rest have been sold for scrap, including one former museum vessel.  ...
above: HiRes! 'Barr and Stroud's Attack Periscope Type CH74 – RAN Oberon class submarine Wiki
Barr & Stroud Limited was a pioneering Glasgow optical engineering firm. They played a leading role in the development of modern optics, including rangefinders, for the Royal Navy and for other branches of British Armed Forces during the 20th century. There was a non-military arm of the company which made medical equipment, like photocoagulators and electronic filters, some of which were used by the BBC. The company and its intellectual property passed through Pilkington group to Thales Optronics. The Barr and Stroud name was sold on to an importer of optical equipment who use the trademarked name for a line of binoculars and similar instruments.  ...  wiki/Barr&Stroud
above: NEW! NoHigher! B & S Periscope (Re Edited!)
above: MedRes! The fin and equipment masts of HMAS Onslow
above: NoHigher! Daniel Linares: SAGEM-Safran, Series 20 APS attack periscope by: gettyimage
En. text: SAGEM (Société d’Applications Générales de l’Électricité et de la Mécanique, translated to Company of General Applications of Electricity and Mechanics) was a major French company involved in defense electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems.
In 2005, SAGEM and SNECMA merged to form Safran. Together the companies focus mainly on aeronautics, defense and Security. The communications and mobile telephony businesses spun off as two independent entities : SAGEMCOM and MobiWire. ...

Fr. text: La Société d’applications générales d’électricité et de mécanique (SAGEM) était une entreprise française créée en 1925 et dissoute en 2005. Elle travaillait initialement dans la mécanique avec la fabrication d’outillage et de machines-outils. Avec l’évolution de la technologie, l'entreprise se lance dans l’électronique et ses deux produits phares, les téléscripteurs, puis les télécopieurs, et les centrales inertielles lui permettent de devenir une grande entreprise internationale dans les années 1970. Elle développe également des applications militaires et aéronautiques. En 2005, elle fusionne avec Snecma pour donner naissance au groupe Safran.  ...
above: NEW! NoHigher! The stabilized azimuth line component in the American Type 2 periscope manufactured by 'Kollmorgen' company  source:
aboveNoHigher! Juci'bacsi's design-sketch of Panorama-Periscop with 'Dove'-prim 1973.  for Wave Vessel-I.  belowNoHigherWave vessel -II.- Hullámhajó for Maritime S.A.R. - Search And Rescue -  Tengeri Kutató-Mentő actions  also Courtesy FREE!

above: NoHigher! Sehrohr Längschnitt: Rundblichsehrohr with 'Dove' prism in eyepiece sector for standing view for fixation standing position of Viewer   below: MedRes! US periscope
ПГ-1M артиллерийская Перископическая орудийный прицел - PG-1 arty sight, 'Dove' prism:
above: NoHigher! Submarine Periscope by Grubb, Dublin, Ex HMS-M L14 1918 for exhibitiongrub
Submarine Periscope Design
The following pages deal mainly with submarine periscope optical design. While the sub periscope possesses unique characteristics overall, its optical design is very repreentative of a much broader class of periscope-like instruments such as armored vehicle sights. These are addressed elsewhere on this site.  ...
above: HiRes! Periscope from 1950-60's: Type-8 Eyepiece Box-Rev by: A. Taylor: 'Optics Digest'
above: NoHigher! Periscope from 1960'a   source:
 above & below: NoHigher! Periscope: Maritime-museum, in "Dolphins"  by: pinterest
above: NoHigher! U-Boot Museum 05. 15. Erlebniswelt U-Boot GmbH. Hafenstraße 18, 18546 Sassnitz  by: Rugen-aktuell
above: HiRes! AERE Brasil: Pt. text: Defesa Aérea & Naval (Same as than Turkish periscope upper!)  source:
above: NoHigher! ARA's TR-1700 periscopic view - Efeméridies latinoamericas
above: MedRes! "Dolphin"-klasse made in Germany auf dem  ... source: Pinterest
above: MedRes! U-214 "Kiel" model
above: NoHigher! Germany TKMS-HDW's Type-216 cutaway: 4,000 ton with VMPL - Vertical Multi-Purpose Locks and HMPL - Horizontal ~
NoHigher! above. Inside the 'Collins' class     below: NEW! South Korean U-212
above: NoHigher! TR-1700 A.dl.R.A. .ar    below: NEW! MedRes! French text schema: sous marin  Wiki
above: MedRes! Spaccato RID 2006.08. U-212  by: Aunsottomarinomultiruolo1024 
above: NoHigher! Es. text: Unter-Boot General Arrangement 
 below: MedRes! Russian PL - Podvodnaya Lodka - Submarine: "Piranja-T - Piranha"
ПЛ подводной лодки проекта 
aboveHiRes! Juci'bácsi's collect: Cutaway from Defence Today
above: NoHigher! USN uniforms
above: NEW! HiRes! U.S. Navy 080818 N-8273J 221 Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Adm. Gary Roughead speaks with Sailors while visiting the 'Los Angeles'-class fast attack submarine USS "Columbia" SSN-771  source:
 above: NoHigher! in RN - Royal Navy female Commander Sarah West-Sub hunting with first female commander of major Navy warship   photo: Mirror Online
 NoHigher! Alamy stock photo: above: the Uthaug her Norwegian Majesty 60ft submarine keeping-watch on the ...  below: U-boot academy going under Bill Pullman captain by Biff Banner  by Alamy
above & below: NoHigher! Female future submariners say they're eager to get the job done
above: NoHigher! Women weren't on U.S. submarines until 5 years ago.
above: NoHigher! We hope that is all! Barbeque party on board - Fedélzeti Flekkensütés
above: MedRes! WW-Two USS COD-647: Alarm!!! "Luncheon Time!" - "Ebédidő!"
below: MedRes! WW-One  Graphic: Charles Delocy  via:  source: sandmarg

above: HiRes! US periscope Inventions Patents from 1921 & 1932 - Találmányi szabadalmak

Hungarian: Hobbi - Tengeralattjáró - Forintos Gyula 22 tonnás tengeralattjárója and Hobby - Submarine - Mr. Gyula Forintos' Homemade Submarine

Hu. text: Article from  Blikk  Magazine: Egy civil program keretében folyt a fejlesztés - mondta Forintos Gyula, aki részt vett a munkákban, és ma is tengeralattjáró-építéssel foglalkozik. A szükséges technológiával csak a honvédség rendelkezhetett, sőt egyes szakértők szerint még ők sem. A katonák támogatták a fejlesztést - állítja Forintos, aki víz alatti műszeres bemérő-roncskeresőként dolgozott. "1989 és 1991 között a flottilla területén építettük meg a tengeralattjárót, ahová akkoriban különleges engedéllyel léphettek be a civilek" - emlékezett Forintos.
above & below: HiRes! Juci'bacsi's scan collect from 1990's 'Magyar Honvéd' - 'Hu. Home Defender' weekly Hu. Armed Forces military newspaper: Hu. freelancer Mr. Forintos Gyula's (TAXI-driver) mini sub for sea journey in Budapest IV. ker. 'Újpest' Port of Hu. Danube Flottila - Kikötőben

 above & below: NoHigher! SS86H & SR93H 
Build by Mr. Forintos Gyula, SS86H was extensively demonstrated to the Hungarian militaryfor river use in the early 1990s, (particularly for mine clearance.) (The Hungarian
Defense Forces did not purchase the sub.) The later SR93H is a highly stylized design
intended for a scientific polar expedition which sadly has yet to materialise. The ship also
had its own power plant, a Mitsubishi power generator, which is able to provide
enough power for a small town. Inner surface Webasto hot air blower is also
equipped which saw 110 ° C of heating and fresh pre-warmed air flowing out of the boat,
as well as several pieces of 220-volt line heat radiators.

Hu. text: Forintos Gyula: Requiem egy tengeralattjáróért
Szerzõi kiadás, 2009.:
Bizonyára egyes ,,öreg'' tengeri kajakosok emlékeznek még arra a korszakra, amikor Végvári Tamásék az egyetemi tanulmányaik végeztével nekivágtak a dél-amerikai, tűzföldi tengeri kajakozásnak. Annak idején ilyesmire neves szponzort is lehetett találni --- a túra sikeresen végződött. Pont azokban a pillanatokban dolgozott Forintos Gyula egy tengeralattjárón az alábbiakban erről lesz szó és a későbbi eseményekről, majd egy riportról, melyben egy expedícióról lesz szó...
A szerzõ a saját ötletei és a szakmai ismeretei alapján vezéreltetve két tengeralattjárót is megépített a kertjében, majd vízre helyezve ki is próbálta. Az elsõ tengeralattjáró – Magyarországon valaha épített ilyen jármûvek elsõ példánya – folyókra tervezett egyszemélyes jármû volt, melyet az építõje végül Hamburgban, az Elba torkolatánál próbált ki. Az errõl szerzett bíztató és keserû tapasztalatai alapján tervezett és épített meg egy másik, immár óceánra is alkalmas többszemélyes jármûvet, mely azonban az 
anyagiak sanyarú alakulása miatt ezideig nem jutott el az óceánok partjára.  ...

above: Left: HiRes! Design-Sketch - Dizájnvázlat of Wave Vessel-I.  RightMedResWave vessel -II.- Hullámhajó for Maritime S.A.R. - Search And Rescue -  Tengeri Kutató-Mentő actions  also Courtesy FREE!
above & below: NoHigher! "Flying Penthouse" Boeing-308 'Stratoliner' as "Cosmic Muffin"
Civil Hydrofoil Boats - Soviet made (СПК) Судно на подводных крыльях - Szárnyashajók a MAHART-nál: Meteor/Sólyom, Budapest -Bratislava - Wien - Beograd
 above & below Two: NoHigher! Juci'bácsi's design-sletch plane of WRB-III - Wave Rescue Boat from 1973. (I was 19 y.o.) - MHH - Mentő Hullámhajó tervecském (My Fantazmagory was!)  below: ASS - Air Supply System - Levegőellátó Rendszer
above: MedRes! Longue Water System - WC - Mosdó - Konyha Vízrendszer
above: MedRes! Cross section of My WRB  also Courtesy FREE!
above: NoHigher! Civ. Euronaut Schematic (Rescue Sub.): So there is this privately owned U-boat in Germany built as part of the Euronaut project and honestly its kinda bad-ass. Its 53-feet long, 32-tons in displacement, capable of diving to 250m (500m c…
Ballast tanks operating methods - Kiegyenlítő tartályok működési elve   below: Hulls - Testek
 above: Blow   below: Flood
above: NoHigher! Cross sections key - Keresztmetszetek leírással
above: HiRes! Dive  source:
HiResabove: Compartments in Nose area    below: Piping & Messenger Buoy - Üzenőbólya
above: HiRes! British 'Upholder'? class
above: NoHigher! R.N. 'Victoria' Class & Russian V.M.F. 'Kilo' Class comparison of submarines 
above: NoHigher! Cutaway diagram of the Type 209/1400 submarine
above: MedRes! Dutch built in 980 a "Hai Lung" class submarine for Taiwan with Mark 48 torpedos
 MedRes! above: SSK U-214  below: ??  Different rudder surfaces!
NoHigher above: Load binary, axis     below: Rudders - Kormányfelületek
above: NoHigher! Diesel-Electric Submarine Power/propulsion System - Meghatórendszer

above: NoHigher! Method of  Propulsion: Mechanical Drive & Integrated Electric Power Sytem

above: NoHigher! Stock-photo: historical Speedometer on the old ship isolated over white
above: HiRes! British 'Oberon' class H.M.S. "Ocelot" 1962. Propeller motor control panel: The panel telegraph (top and left) showed instructions issued from the motor telegraph position beside the helm station in the control room which were to be carried out.  source: Wikipedia
above: MedRes! U.S.S. 'Cubera' SS-347 "Guppy-II" conversion  source: 
 above: NoHigher! & below: MedRes! 'Snorkel' Air-Duct System - Periszkópos levegőbetáplálási rendszer

above: NoHigher! Hu. text. 'Stirling' sortie - féle Four tact Diesel Engine - 'Stirling'-féle dízelmotor
above: NoHigher! Now sweden SAAB and FMV's -AIP 'Stirling' engine  source: Submarine Matters
above: NoHigher! ASDIC - Allied Submarine Detection Investigating Committee = szövetséges tengeralattjáró-felderítő vizsgálóbizottság., Active Sonar
 NEW! aboveHiRes! ASDIC monitor  source: wikipedia    below: NoHigher! Lockheed Martin 2014. Sonar Room -  Hangfelderítő szoba
above: HiRes! Sonar-Monitore im US-amerikanischen Atom-U-Boot USS Toledo (SSN-769)
De. text: Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels; active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar. Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or hydroacoustics. ...
De. text: Sonar ist ein „Verfahren zur Ortung von Gegenständen im Raum und unter Wasser mittels ausgesandter Schallimpulse“. Das Wort ist ein englisches Akronym von sound navigation and ranging, was sich mit Schall-Navigation und -Entfernungsbestimmung übersetzen lässt.
Sonar ist ein „Verfahren zur Ortung von Gegenständen im Raum und unter Wasser mittels ausgesandter Schallimpulse“. Das Wort ist ein englisches Akronym von sound navigation and ranging, was sich mit Schall-Navigation und -Entfernungsbestimmung übersetzen lässt.
Sonar-Messtechniken nutzen die Tatsache aus, dass sich Schall unter Wasser insbesondere bei hohen Frequenzen sehr viel verlustärmer ausbreitet als in der Luft. Aus historischen Gründen wird begrifflich unterschieden zwischen Sonargeräten (kurz als „Sonare“ bezeichnet), die überwiegend horizontal, und Echoloten, die überwiegend vertikal orten.
Schallsignale können bei der Echoortung (aktives Sonar, hierzu zählt auch das Echolot) oder zur Lokalisation von Objekten eingesetzt werden, die selbst Schall emittieren.
Aktive Sonare benutzen das Echoprinzip wie Radaranlagen, strahlen also selbst ein Signal aus, dessen Echo sie empfangen, aus dem sie über Laufzeit des Echos die Entfernung bestimmen. Echolote gehören zu diesem Typ.
In der Literatur wird oft von passivem Sonar gesprochen, wobei sich diese Angabe auf den passiven Betriebsmodus eines auch zum aktiven Senden fähigen Ortungssystems beziehen kann. Dabei werden nur die von Objekten eigenständig generierten Signale bzw. Geräusche empfangen, was die Tarnung des ortenden Systems schützt. In beiden Betriebsarten kann die Richtung des einfallenden Schalles bestimmt werden, eine präzise und verlässliche Entfernungsmessung ist jedoch oft nur im aktiven Betriebsmodus möglich.
Die Abgrenzung zwischen „Sonaranlagen“, die neben dem aktiven auch einen passiven Betriebsmodus haben können, und „Horchanlagen“, die ausschließlich die passive Schallortung erlauben, ist besonders in der englischsprachigen Literatur oft nicht eindeutig. ...

above & below Two: MedRes! Hu. txt: Juci's "SONAR" 1973. ZIM-RIM System  also Courtesy FREE!
 NEW! NoHigher! above: Schematics of  SoNAR    below: Underwater microphone circuit diagram  by: Circuit Diagram World
NEW! above: HiRes! Invention U.S. Patent: SONAR Transducer - Sugárzó   below: MedRes! Schema
Hu. text: A szonár (angol rövidítés: sonar - „sound navigation and ranging”, jelentése = hanggal való navigáció és felderítés) vízalatti műveleteknél a legfontosabb érzékelő, felderítő, navigáló eszköz (kisebb részben kommunikációs célra is használható). Néha hangradarként is hivatkoznak rá.
1942 elejére az USA partjaitól keletre a németek mintegy félmillió tonna vízkiszorítású amerikai és szövetséges hajót süllyesztettek el. Emiatt kezdődött a szonár, a víz alatti radar kifejlesztése amerikai és brit közreműködéssel. Akkori neve „Asdic” volt (Asdic: Allied Submarine Detection Investigating Committee = szövetséges tengeralattjáró-felderítő vizsgálóbizottság). A szonár alkalmazásával lehetővé vált a német tengeralattjárók korai felismerése, és az USN part menti hajói egyre javuló hatékonysággal szálltak szembe velük. 1943-ra kiegyenlítődtek az erőviszonyok: az elsüllyesztett német tengeralattjárók száma megegyezett a Szövetséges erők elsüllyedt hajóinak számával. Az Atlanti csatavégére a németek 1175 tengeralattjáróból 781-et elvesztettek, ebből 191-et az USN süllyesztett el. A második világháború alatt a német tengeralattjárókon szolgáló tengerészek 75%-a meghalt.  ...   
NEW! NoHigher! Active ASW Array and  Lower: Active Tansducer Array
above: HiRes! Sensor of Hydrofon - Hydrophone - a Hidrofon érzékelője
above: NEW! MedRes! Mark 15 Mod-3 torpedo  source: eagle.speak
Dimensions      21" by 20'6"
53.3cm by 6.248m
Weight3280 lbs
1488 kg
Range4500 yards (4100m) at 46 knots
9000 yards (8200m) at 31 knots
Warhead643 lbs Torpex
292 kg Torpex
Propulsion      Alcohol-air two-stage impulse turbine
above & below: MedRes! Compressed-Air Torpedo MK-14 Interior Workings Diagram 1945.
The Mark 14 torpedo was the standard weapon on the more modern U.S. submarines by 1941. It had a sophisticated magnetic detonator, the Mark 6, that was supposed to set the weapon off directly under the keel of a ship, where it would break the ship's back. Design work began in 1931 for a replacement for the Mark 10 with greater range and a larger warhead, and continued for seven years. However, frugal budgets and an obsession with secrecy meant that it was live-tested exactly twice before being issued to the fleet in 1938. One of the tests failed, which ought to have raised a red flag, but the Navy was reluctant to fund further live-firing tests. It was not until war broke out that the flaws of the torpedo became apparent, with one submarine commander (Jacobs of Sargo) correctly reporting within the first month of hostilities that there were problems with depth keeping and with the magnetic exploder.  ...
above: MedRes! Torpedo Steering-Rudder Control - Kormányredszere   source: Pinterest
above: NoHigher! Torpedo 1939. vintage cutaway graphics - korabeli röntgenrajz
above: NoHigher! A Japanese Type 93 torpedo - nicknamed "Long Lance" after the war  source: Wiki
above: HiRes! Bliss–Leavitt Mark 8 torpedo in "Germanton"-Park  source: Wikipedia
above: MedRes! Juci'bacsi's 'Sony-Ericcson' "Yari" "halfsmart" handy photo 2017.11.14.15:30  Budapest, Buda-castle - ~-i vár, Mária Magdolna torony - tower  (Torpedo shape - Torpedóformájú).
Imádkozom a Lelkükért - I pray for Souls
above: MedRes! A-2 torpedo loading - az USS "Ader" tengeralattjáró (SS-3) feltöltése torpedóval
above: NoHigher! Kriegsmarine U-XXI   below: MedRes! USS "Growler" Torpedo Room by:
En. text: The modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
Historically, it was called an automotive, automobile, locomotive or fish torpedo; colloquially called a fish. The term torpedo was originally employed for a variety of devices, most of which would today be called mines. From about 1900, torpedo has been used strictly to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon.
While the battleship had evolved primarily around engagements between armoured ships with large-caliber guns, the torpedo allowed torpedo boats and other lighter surface ships, submersibles, even ordinary fishing boats or frogmen, and later, aircraft, to destroy large armoured ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range shellfire.
Today's torpedoes can be divided into lightweight and heavyweight classes; and into straight-running, autonomous homers, and wire-guided. They can be launched from a variety of platforms. ...
Hu. text: A torpedó saját hajtással rendelkező, robbanófejjel ellátott fegyver, melyet vagy a víz felszíne fölött vagy a víz alatt indítanak, a vízben a céltárgy (általában hajó) felé halad és nekiütközve vagy közelébe érve felrobban.
A torpedókat tengeralattjárókról, felszíni hajókról, helikopterekről, merevszárnyú repülőgépekről, személyzet nélküli tengeri aknákról és tengeri erődökből is lehet indítani. A torpedók más fegyverekkel kapcsolatban is használhatók; az amerikai Mark 46 torpedó lesz az ASROC (tengeralattjáró elhárító rakéta) robbanófeje is és a CAPTOR akna vízalatti érzékelőket használ a torpedó indítására, ha ellenséget érzékel.
Amikor a korszerű csatahajók kialakultak, a tengeri csaták nagy ágyúkkal felszerelt, páncélozott hajók között zajlottak. A torpedókkal azonban a nagy hajók leküzdéséhez kis torpedónaszádok, tengeralattjárók és repülőgépek is elegendőek voltak.  ...

NEW! above: NoHigher! Diagram of moderne torpedo source:    below Two: Torpedo Diagram by: apwhod2011.pbworks    Lower: Modernes SONAR torpedo
above: NEW! NoHigher! Torpedo/eurotorp cutaway diagram: turbine-electric propulsion by: Bluebird Marine System
above: HiRes! French Navy during Cold-War -  Hu. text: A hidegháborús francia "Argonaute" dízel tengeralattjáró torpedókamrája
Fr. text: La Marine nationale est à la fois un corps de la fonction publique de l'État et la force militaire navale (marine de guerre) de la République française. C'est une des composantes des Forces armées françaises avec l'Armée de terre, l'Armée de l'air, la Gendarmerie nationale et les services de soutien interarmées.
Sa flotte se compose depuis 2015 d'environ 70 bâtiments de surface. Elle est la seule marine européenne à disposer d'un porte-avions à propulsion nucléaire. Sa flotte sous-marine est composée de dix unités, toutes à propulsion nucléaire, dont quatre sont armées de missiles nucléaires balistiques.
En 2013, la Marine employait 39 100 personnes recrutées par concours. Ses officiers sont formés à l'École navale où l'on accède par un concours démocratique après deux ans de préparation. Son budget annuel total en 2008 était de 5,8 milliards d'euros. Si la Marine nationale française se place au 5e rang mondial des marines militaires par le tonnage, elle est classée au deuxième rang mondial, derrière l'United States Navy selon la méthode des rangs d'Hervé Coutau-Bégarie.
La devise de la Marine, gravée en lettres blanches ou dorées sur des plaques au fond bleu fixées sur les superstructures de tous ses bâtiments, est « Honneur, Patrie, Valeur, Discipline ».
La Marine est encore aujourd'hui appelée familièrement « la Royale » pour la distinguer de « la Marchande ». ...

above: NoHigher! French Navy FS "Redoutable" torpilles - a Le Redoutable francia atomtengeralattjáró torpedókamrája
above: NoHigher! Naval Ordnance: US Torpedos Comparison
above: MedRes! 3D profiles: Mark-48-torpedos diagram  source: "Submarine-Matters     below: MedRes! Cutaway of Russian VMF's Torpedos
above: HiRes! British 'Oberon' classe H.M.S. "Ocelot" Forward Torpedo Tubes
The Oberons were originally armed with eight 21-inch (533.4 mm) torpedo tubes: six tubes in the bow, and two short tubes for antisubmarine defence in the stern. The submarine normally carried a payload of 20 torpedoes for the forward tubes; a mix of Mark 24 Tigerfish and Mark 8 torpedoes, while only the two preloaded torpedoes were carried for the stern tubes. Naval mines could be carried instead of torpedoes: the torpedo payload would be replaced with up to 50 Mark 5 Stonefish or Mark 6 Sea Urchin mines.

The forward torpedo tubes are constructed in two sections bolted together across the bulkhead at the fore end of the torpedo compartment. The 116-in long inner section is constructed of 0.5-in rolled steel fitted with welded flanges and support brackets. The outer section is constructed of a similar tube 175 in long but with a reinforced 1.125 inch thick section behind the main bulkhead. The internal door hinges at one side with two locking mechanisms, a swing bolt opposite the hinge and a rotating locking ring attached to the tube which presses down on the ten projecting lugs around the door. The outer end of the tube is sealed with a domed bow cap. Bow shutters close across the bow caps so as to preserve the streamlined shape of the bow when the cap is closed.

The bow caps and shutters are mechanically linked to a hydraulically operated drive rod from within the torpedo compartment. The bow cap opens first behind the shutter, which then folds back against it forming a smooth exit tube. Interlocks prevent the doors at both ends being opened at the same time but the inner door is also provided with a test cock to check whether the tube is full of water before opening and remains held nearly closed by the swing bolt after the locking ring is released. The tube internal diameter is 22.5 in, wider than the torpedo, which is designed as a loose fit inside the tube. Torpedoes could be fired either electrically or with compressed air.

The aft torpedo tubes passed through the ballast tank at the rear of the submarine. A 31-in section projected into the boat through the bulkhead, forming overall a relatively short tube of 12 ft, but of 25 in diameter.  ...
above: HiRes! 'Oberon' class "Ocelot" The search periscope and the attack periscope

Barr & Stroud Search and Attack Periscopes

The Name Barr & Stroud is synonymous with Periscopes and the Royal Navy. A Glasgow company, started in 1888, it was, and still is, the sole supplier of Periscopes to the Royal Navy. These examples are on HMS Ocelot at the Historic Dockyard at Chatham in Kent. Today Barr & Stroud is part of the Thales group but still builds all the RN's Periscopes at its Glasgow factory.
above: NoHigher! VION Marine Clock with 97 mm Wall Flange, Stainless Steel  source: pinterest
above: HiRes! Torpedo fire control consoles aboard 'Oberon' class HMCS "Onondaga"
above & below: NoHigher! USS 'Nautilus' Nuclear Powered first SSN-571 of the World: Torpedo Fire Control Computer System  source: Wiki
MedResabove: Schema of Torpedo Attack Team   belowTFCS
above: NoHigher! WW-Two: Kriegsmarine TFCS - Torpedo Fire Control System: Pl. text: Kalkulator - Calculator torpedowy w kiosku U 234 U-Boot typu XB
above: MedRes! Kriegsmarine Unterseeboot Subsim: TDE Frontside of attack disc using new images      below: MedRes! Details of Angle gauge Disc: Left: TDE Attack sh5 Attack Disc Back  Right: TDE fot German calculating disc Angriffsscheibe

above HiRes! Rebuilt TDI Direction DisplayÚjjáépített TDI kijelzőműszer  Sextant & Air Art GraphicsCourtesy FREE!

Tank Torony-irányszögkijelző műszer - Angle of Turret Orientation Indicator. Retro 'Know-How' Graphics Artwork Design Project in MOM style FCS оборудование - Firecontrol - Tiefenmesser: 
above MedRes! Soviet "Golf" Torpedo launch Computer 
above: NoHigher! Juci'bacsi's 'Praktica' F.X 2 reprophoto with small-film ORWO/Hu. Forte 24 x 32 'Pentacon' mast in late 1970's in Hu.MoD Isnstitute & Museum of Military History - HM. Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum / Military-Science Library - Hadtudományi Könyvtár (cmdr-pk.: libr.boss.-kvt.vez: Col. Dr. Nádor Ferenc ezds.) -Budapest- I.ker. (Budai-castle - vár) Kapisztrán -tér 4-6. copy by Nikon  "Coolpix" 2014.: Sonar crewmember

above: MedRes! Подводная лодка оборудование приборная Доска - U-Boat indicator   source:     below: NoHigher! 'AirGuide' Marine Clock for a boat

above: MedRes! USN Submarine Attack Coures Finder Mk.1 Mod-3 'Oemloid' Corp. for TFC
above: NoHigher! Japanese  Torpedo Tactics Sheet WW-Two
Ja. text: 魚雷(ぎょらい)は、魚形水雷の略称であり、弾頭にエンジンと高速スクリューを組み合わせ、水中を航行し、目標とした艦船などを爆発によって破壊することを目的とした兵器である。魚雷は艦船の喫水下の部分を破壊するため多大の浸水を与え行動力を奪う。魚雷を用いて攻撃することを雷撃、魚雷攻撃を浴びることを被雷と呼ぶ。


NoHigherabove Upper &  Two: Wikipedia & below:  Method of  Intercept & Torpedo Launching - Elfogás és Torpedóvetés elve

above: MedRes! Princip of Torpedo Fire
above: MedRes! US AN 'Collins' Combat System
above: NoHigher! Hunterkilling system        
above: NoHigher! USN Lockheed P-3 "Orion" and 'Oliver Hazard Perry' FFG-7 class frigate searh to Malaysian MH377 on Indian ocean after 2015. júl. 29
MH377 Boeing B-777 Malaysian Airlines catastrophic - International SAR action 
above: NEW! MedRes! P-3 crew: left: SONAR Operator  right: Navigator. US Navy 030816 N-1928O-043 Naval Reservists assigned to The "Liberty Bells" of Patrol Squadron Sixty Six (VP-66)  source: Wikipedia
above: NEW! NoHigher! Moderne Mourning dress - Modern Gyászruha  source:
 aboveNoHigher! PUB LCS ASW  source: PPS   
above: NEW! NoHigher! SONAR Searching    below: NoHigher! ASW search method

ASW - Anti Submarine Warfare - Tengeralattjáró Elleni/Elhárítás Fegyverzet

above: NoHigher! Diesel Subs' Relative Sound Detectability - Relatív Hangérzékelhetőség  source: Submarine Matters

above: NoHigher! Attack Submarines for sale  

above: NoHigher! Remote Controlled Robotic Shark

Kriegsmarine Fernglas / Fernrohr: 80 mm portable Naval artillery Double telescope Carl Zeiss Jena "Asembi" binoculars - Német Haditengerészeti távcső:

NoHigher! above: Steel-Shark by Word Famous Pin-Up graphiker Hajime Sorayama

Oscar awards - sculpture _ SSGN APL - "Kursk" project 949A antey - АПЛ (атомной подводной лодка) Курск _ Arleigh Burke class DDG-88 "Oscar Austin":
above: NoHigher! HydroView Underwater HD Video Camera    below: NEW! Sidescan SoNAR

above: NoHigher! "#Yellow Submarine" from '#Beatles'

above: MedRes! Marine Trumpeter "In Silencio"
"Don't cry to me Argentina"
above: HiRes! A.R.A.'s Vice-Admiral - Argentin Altengernagy
above: HiRes!  A.R.A. sailors on parade   below: NoHigher! Argentinian Armed Forces: Armada Parade marsch with female Leader